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Tree and Shrub Descriptions for State Nursery-Raised Seedlings

All seedlings typically range from 5-14 inches, depending on the species and the year. Species are bare-root stock unless otherwise indicated.

Conifer Species

All species available in units of 25 for $20 or 100 for $55. Some offered in units of 250 (as noted). Minimum seedling height 6". See Nursery Stock Availability page for status of availability since some species sell out quickly.

bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder indicates native species that support at least 60 species of insects that birds rely on to raise their young. (96% of our songbirds require insect larvae to raise their young.)

bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators indicates native species that provide food for pollinators. The icons match those used within the brochure.

Austrian Pine

Latin name: Pinus nigra
Height: 50 to 80 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well-drained soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Dense pyramidal shape when young, becoming more open and flat-topped with age. Shiny dark green stiff needles, 3 inches to 5 inches long, sharp tipped, arranged in bundles of 2. Cones stiff, 2 to 3 inches long. Bark dark gray brown becoming deeply furrowed.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Christmas trees, windbreak, pulp.
Interesting Facts: Native of Europe, popular for landscape planting because more tolerant of heavy soils and pollution than many native pines.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. European source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$80.

Red Pine

red pine needles and cone
red pine needles and cone

Latin name: Pinus resinosa
Height: 50 to 80 feet
Width: 30 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Does well on sterile sandy soils.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Form rounded and conical with dense foliage when young, becoming more open with age. Develops very long straight trunk, especially in plantations. Needles dark green, in bundles of two. Cone reddish- brown, 2 to 3 inches long, stiff with thickened scale tips. Attached directly to branches, persistent. Bark reddish, becoming gray, platy and flaking with age.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals. Bark eaten by porcupines.
Uses: Poles, Christmas trees, lumber, pulp.
Interesting Facts: One of the primary reforestation species during early to mid 20th century. Ability to grow in dry sandy soil led to widespread planting of red pine for reclamation of abandoned and ruined farmland. These pine plantations stabilized the soil and provided shelter for eventual regeneration of hardwoods. Long straight trunks of plantation trees made outstanding poles for telephone lines, log buildings and pole construction. Also widely planted around reservoirs for water quality protection.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$80.

Scotch Pine

Latin name: Pinus sylvestris
Height: 30 to 60 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Rounded conical form with dense foliage when young, growing more open with age. Foliage bluish-green. Needles in bundles of two, 1 ½ inches to 3 inches long, thick and twisted. Cones small and stiff, 1 to 2 inches long. Bark red-brown, scaly when young, becoming grayer and furrowed with age. Older trees very distinctive because upper trunk and limbs are reddish and lower trunk is gray. Danish or Boonville Strain.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals. Bark eaten by porcupines.
Uses: Christmas trees, windbreak, pulp.
Interesting Facts: Has become one of the top Christmas tree species because of long-lasting needles and dense sturdy foliage.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. New York orchard; Boonville or Danish strain. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$80.

White Pine

Latin name: Pinus strobus
Height: 60 to 100 feet
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Rounded conical shape with dense foliage when young, becoming more open with age. Straight long trunk. Foliage bluefish-green, soft looking. Needles in bundles of five, very thin, 3 to 5 inches long. Cones narrow and flexible, 4 to 8 inches long with thick tipped scales. Bark dark gray-brown, smooth when young, becoming rough and furrowed with age.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Cover and nest sites, especially for larger birds. Height and open branches on old trees make white pine a prime species for large raptor nests. Large diameter of trunk especially valuable as nest site for pileated woodpeckers. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals. Bark eaten by porcupines.
Uses: Lumber, pulp, poles, windbreak. Used for furniture, paneling and boat planking. Soft white wood is prized by carvers because it cuts and sands cleanly without any fuzzing.
Interesting Facts: In colonial times, tall straight white pines marked by British as king's pines to reserve them for use as masts by royal navy ships. Tallest-growing tree species in Northeast growing to 120 feet tall and with trunks up to 4 feet in diameter. Most valuable timber species in historic times, used for almost every purpose.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$80.

Red Spruce

Latin name: Picea rubens
Height: 59 to 131 feet
Width: 2 feet (trunk diameter)
Growth Rate: Slow to medium
Site Requirements: Shade tolerant, can grow in a range of elevations. Prefers moist but well-drained sandy loam.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Full pyramidal shape when young, growing to tall narrow conical form. Foliage yellow-green. Has sharp-tipped, four-sided needles that extend from all sides of the twig. Cones brown with wavy scales, 1 ¼ inches to 2 inches long. Bark brown to grayish brown, becoming rough and flaky. Grey-brown bark and reddish wood.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Christmas trees. Tonewood for instruments. Paper pulp.
Interesting Facts: The sap of the red spruce can be used to make spruce gum. Twigs can be boiled to make spruce beer.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20 only.

Norway Spruce

Norway spruce forest
Norway spruce forest

Latin name: Picea abies
Height: 60 to 100 feet.
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Fast to medium.
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist, well drained soil. Tolerates very wide range of soil types.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer. Conical shape, older trees with long upswept branches. Dark green needles, ¾ inch to 1 inch long, four sided with sharp tip. Leaf scar is a raised woody peg. Cone red-brown, very large, 6 inches to 8 inches long with thin stiff scales. Bark gray-brown, smooth when young, becoming rough and platy with age.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Lumber, windbreak, Christmas trees, pulp. Soft, light wood is valued for soundboards of musical instruments.
Interesting Facts: Big outdoor Christmas trees, such as those at Rockefeller Center, are often Norway spruce. Grows very large, and is most widely planted spruce for windbreaks and plantations.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$85.

White Spruce

Latin name: Picea glauca
Height: 40 to 60 feet
Width: 15 to 20 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Hardy to zone 2. Does not like shade.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Full pyramidal shape when young, growing to tall narrow conical form. Foliage dull blue-green. Sharp-tipped, four-sided needles ½ inch to ¾ inch long, pointing upward. Cones brown with wavy scales, 1 ½ inches to 2 inches long. Bark brown to grayish brown, becoming rough and flaky.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Lumber, windbreak, pulp, Christmas trees.
Interesting Facts: Inner bark is silvery white, hence the name white spruce.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$85.

Balsam Fir

Latin name: Abies balsamea
Height: 40 to 70 feet
Width: 20 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist well drained soil. Prefers cool conditions.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Conical shape with narrow crown. Needles ¾ inch long, dark green, with rounded ends, very fragrant. Leaf scar round and flat. Cones upright, 2 to 3 inches long, disintegrate on tree leaving persistent central spike. Bark gray-brown, smooth with
blisters filled with fragrant resin.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder wildlife cover, foliage and buds eaten by deer, seeds eaten by birds and squirrels.
Uses: Christmas trees, wreaths, pulpwood and lumber.
Interesting Facts: Traditional Christmas tree species long prized for its wonderful fragrance. Resin from bark, known as Canada Balsam, formerly used as optical adhesive for glass lenses and microscope slides.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$80.

Concolor Fir

Latin name: Abies concolor
Height: 30'-50'
Width: 20'
Growth Rate: Slow/Medium
Site Requirements: Full sun to partial shade is preferred. The concolor fir has some drought tolerance
Physical Description: The concolor fir Is a popular Christmas tree choice. It has flat needles that are bluish or silvery-green and roughly 1½-3" in length. They extend from all sides of the twig and curve upward. It grows in a pyramidal shape and yields oblong cones 3-6" in length that start out olive green, turning purplish and then brown at maturity. The cones are held upright on the branches and disintegrate while on the tree. Winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate.
Wildlife Value: Grouse like to eat the buds and needles and find the concolor fir a good roosting tree. The seeds are eaten by squirrels, chickadees, crossbills and Clark's nutcrackers. Deer browse on seedlings, buds and needles, and porcupines gnaw on the bark.
Uses: Can be used as a windbreak tree as well as an ornamental. Popular for Christmas trees. Tolerates heat and winter cold.
Interesting Facts: Concolor means "together, or of one color."
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$80.

Douglas Fir

Latin name: Pseudotsuga menziesii
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist well drained soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Dense foliage when young, becoming tall open and conical with age. Foliage often grayish green to blue-green, needles 1 inch to 1 ½ inch long. Cones oval, light brown, 3 to 4 inches long, with long tongue-like bracts hanging out between the scales.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by birds and rodents.
Uses: Christmas trees , lumber, pulp. Popular as Christmas tree because of long-lasting attractive foliage.
Interesting Facts: Native to western U.S., grows very tall and large in coastal forests and is major timber species in Pacific Northwest, and in the Rocky Mountains.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2+ year seedling. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$55, 250/$85.

European Larch

Latin name: Larix decidua
Height: 60 to 80 feet
Width: 25 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Fast to medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Hardy to zone 3.
Physical Description: Deciduous conifer tree. Conical open habit with soft green foliage. Turns yellow in fall, then drops needles. Soft flexible needles 1 to 1 ½ inches long, bright to dark green, arranged in whorls of 30 to 40 on short woody spurs. Twigs gray to yellowish, furrowed, without hair. Cones stiff, oval, 1 to 1 ½ inches long with wavy edged scales. Cones often persist for several seasons, and old silvery cones may be present alongside new brown cones. Bark thin and grayish brown, becoming rough and furrowed with age.
Wildlife Value: Seeds eaten by birds and rodents. Provides cover and nest sites for birds.
Uses: Lumber, pulp. Strong heavy rot-resistant wood used for construction, poles, railroad ties. One of the top lumber species in Europe, usually grown in plantations.
Interesting Facts: Makes a good nurse tree for shade tolerant hardwood species.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. New York orchard. Minimum height 6". 25/$20 only.

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Hardwood Species

All species available in units of 25 for $30, 100 for $70 except as noted. Height: 5" - 14". New York source when available. See Nursery Stock Availability page for status of availability since some species sell out quickly.

bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder indicates native species that support at least 60 species of insects that birds rely on to raise their young. (96% of our songbirds require insect larvae to raise their young.)

bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators indicates native species that provide food for pollinators. The icons match those used within the brochure.

Black Walnut

Latin name: Juglans nigra
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 30 to 60 feet
Growth Rate: Medium fast
Site Requirements: sun, deep moist well drained soil
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Often has rather short trunk and open spreading branches. Compound leaves, 12 to 24 inches long with 10 to 24 narrow leaflets. Terminal leaflet often absent. Nuts almost round, about 1 inch long covered with thick husk. Unripe nuts have green husk and are perfectly round 1 ½ inch spheres. Husk turns brown and begins to disintegrate when nuts are ripe. Bark dark brown with narrow ridges.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Rich oily nutmeats are high calorie food for squirrels who open the nuts, and also for birds who clean out the shells.
Uses: Primary use is lumber from the valuable dark brown heartwood. Prized for furniture. Nuts are used for baking. Nut husks were once an important source of brown dye. Ripe nut husks will stain hands.
Interesting Facts: Spreads very readily where there are nut-bearing trees, because squirrels bury so many of the nuts.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$70.

Buckeye

Yellow only
Latin name:
Aesculus glabra or Aesculus flava
Height: 40-60 feet
Width: 30-40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Deep rich moist soil with good drainage. Full sun on sites with good moisture. Partial shade preferable on drier sites. A good choice for riparian sites.
Physical Description: Native deciduous tree. Resembles European horse chestnut, which is in the same genus. Rounded crown, rather short trunk. Branches may turn up at ends. Big stout twigs with large terminal buds. Leaves are palmately compound with five leaflets, each 3 to 6 inches long, oval shaped with pointed tips, and finely toothed margins. Fall color bright yellows and oranges. Leafs out early in spring. Flowers yellow to yellow green in upright clusters. Beautiful glossy brown seeds are very large, 1 inch to 1 ½ inch in diameter and enclosed in leathery husks. Ohio buckeye has a prickly husk with a single seed, and yellow buckeye has a smooth husk containing 1 to 3 seeds.
Wildlife Value: bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Seeds eaten by squirrels. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Light, fine textured wood good for carving. Commercial wood use mostly for pulp.
Interesting Facts: Seeds and foliage toxic due to high tannin content. Should not be planted where livestock can eat foliage or seeds. Protein-rich seeds used for food by Native Americans after careful soaking to leach out toxins. Seeds have been used as lucky charms, toys and slingshot ammunition. It is next to impossible to resist picking up the wonderfully smooth seeds.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Ohio or Yellow. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$70.

Black Cherry

Latin name: Prunus serotina
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Fast to medium
Site Requirements: Full sun, deep, moist well drained soil. On good sites black cherry can grow very large, with a long straight trunk.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Dense pyramidal form when young, developing more drooping branches with age. Leaves shiny, finely toothed, oval shaped with pointed tip. Fall color often in shades of reds and oranges. Small white flowers in narrow, hanging clusters followed by small reddish black, sweet berries. Bark on young trees smooth shiny dark gray brown with prominent horizontal lenticels. Older bark very distinctive blackish flakes resembling burnt potato chips.
Wildlife Value: bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Stems browsed by deer and rabbits. Fruit eaten by many birds and mammals. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Heartwood is beautiful reddish brown color, hard and strong. Used for furniture, veneer and dimensional lumber.
Interesting Facts: One of our most valuable hardwoods and prized since colonial times for fine furniture.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5-14". 25/$30 only.

Hybrid Poplar

Latin name: Populus deltoides x Populus sp. (Eastern cottonwood crosses with other poplar species)
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. The cottonwood parent is a riparian species and grows in floodplain areas.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Upright, somewhat spreading habit. Leaves large rounded triangle shape like cottonwood, 2 to 5 inches long. Bark variable, usually light gray brown.
Wildlife Value: Shoots and leaves provide browse for deer and rabbits. Cover and nest sites for birds. Soft wood on old trees is easily excavated by woodpeckers for nest cavities.
Uses: Pulp, biofuel, windbreaks
Interesting Facts: Extremely fast growing, and can be coppiced for fuel crops.
Seedling size and cost: 1 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$20, 100/$60.

Flowering Dogwood

Latin name: Cornus florida
Height: 25'
Width: 25'
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: The flowering dogwood is very versatile-growing in acidic, loamy, moist, rich, sandy, well-drained and clay soils. It prefers moist conditions. It grows best in full sun and partial shade.
Physical Description: A small deciduous tree that blooms April-May, with distinctive white bracts (modified leaves) that give the appearance of large, white flowers. Produces glossy red fruit that is inedible to humans, but widely eaten by birds. Provides great fall color, with leaves turning red-purple. Grows in a rounded shape. The flowering dogwood is a good choice for planting near utility lines, larger buildings or patios. This tree has dark green leaves that are 4-8" long and oval or ovate in shape.
Wildlife Value:bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder The seed, fruit, flowers, twigs, bark and leaves are all used as food by various animals. Nearly 40 species of birds-including ruffed grouse, bobwhite quail and wild turkey-are known to eat the fruit. Large and small mammals such as chipmunks, foxes and deer also browse the fruit and bark.
Interesting Facts: This tree is considered both a flowering tree and an ornamental tree. It is typically planted for both its visual interest and profusion of spring flowers.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. New York source. Height 5" - 14". 25/$30 only.

Red Maple

Latin name: Acer rubrum
Height: 40 to 60 feet
Width: 30 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium fast
Site Requirements: Sun and moist well drained soil for best growth. Will grow on wide range of sites, particularly tolerant of wet conditions. Often found in wooded swamps, but will also grow on upland sites.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Conical to rounded crown, dense foliage. Leaves 2 to 5 inches across, usually 3 to 5 lobes, but typically 3-lobed. Margin usually toothed. Backs of leaves are light colored, often silvery white. Fall color mostly shades of red, also bright yellow, rarely shades of orange. Early spring flowers are red as are the ripening seeds. Samaras small and v-shaped. Young trees have smooth pale gray bark, becoming gray brown and rough on older trees.
Wildlife Value: bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Valuable browse for deer, good nest site for many birds, especially those which nest near wetlands. Seed, buds and twigs eaten by squirrels. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Excellent riparian tree, but tough and adaptable enough for many urban uses. Also used for lumber and pulp.
Interesting Facts: Best known for its brilliant red in fall, especially in swamps. Has remarkable range of reds, including an improbable shade of fluorescent pink-red. Whitish leaf undersides noticeable and attractive when foliage stirred by breeze.
Seedling size and cost: 3 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$70.

Chestnut Oak

Latin name: Quercus montana (synonym Quercus prinus)
Height: 60 to 70 feet
Width: 40 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Soil well drained, moist to dry. Very drought tolerant. Does well in acid sandy soils, but tolerant of many soil types. Can grow on extremely poor, dry, rocky sites.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree with straight trunk and dense crown. Member of white oak group with rounded teeth on leaves and acorns which ripen in one year. Leaves 4 to 7 inches, oval, or with wider top, in shape. Large rounded teeth give margin a wavy look. Tops of leaves yellowish green to dark green, and very shiny. Undersides lighter green, but not white. Fall color often bright yellow, but also many shades of orange to red.
Large acorns, 1 to 1 ½ inches long, with thin rough cap. Thick bark deeply furrowed with broad ridges, even on relatively small trees. Often grows on dry rocky sites, hence the name rock oak. Trees on extremely dry rocky ridges are smaller and may have crooked trunks, but their ability to survive drought is remarkable. When the foliage of other trees is getting dry and wilted, chestnut oak leaves still look fresh and glossy.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Large sweet acorns are prized by wildlife.
Uses: Lumber similar to that of white oak. Bark formerly used for tanning leather. A beautiful and underused oak species for drier sites.
Interesting Facts: The wavy margined chestnut oak leaves don't really look much like the long, sharply toothed leaves of American chestnut, but the name is a reminder of a time when American chestnut grew alongside chestnut oaks.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30 only.

Red Oak

Latin name: Quercus rubra
Height: 60 to 80 feet
Width: 40 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Grows well on upland sites. most cold-tolerant oak species, hardy to zone 4.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Dense foliage, pyramidal form when young, developing long straight trunk in forest conditions, and shorter thick trunk in open situations. Rounded crown, usually more symmetrical than white oak. Leaves glossy, 5 to 8 inches long with lobes ending in sharp points. Fall color ranges from vivid red to russet brown. Big acorns, about 1 inch long, with very shallow caps like little berets. Ripen in two years, bitter taste. Bark smooth when young, becoming ridged with age.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Foliage browsed by deer. Acorns a major food source for wildlife species, especially deer, bear, turkeys, squirrels and many birds, especially jays and woodpeckers.
Uses: Very strong heavy, reddish wood, used for beams, framing, flooring and furniture. Tolerant of urban conditions and does well in larger areas like parks.
Interesting Facts: Unusually fast growing for an oak.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$70.

White Oak

Latin name: Quercus alba
Height: 50 to 80 feet
Width: 40 to 60 feet
Growth Rate: Slow to medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Quite drought tolerant, will grow on dry rocky sites.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Dense foliage, pyramidal form when young. Open grown trees tend to develop short massive trunks and wide irregular crowns, often very picturesque. Forest-gown trees have longer trunks and narrower crowns. Leaves 4 to 8 inches long with rounded lobes, often finger shaped. Fall color wine red to pinkish brown. Acorns, small and sweet, maturing in one year. Bark is light gray brown, flaky on younger trees, becoming platy or blocky on old trees.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Acorns valuable food for turkey, deer, squirrels, jays and many other species.
Uses: Lumber is extremely strong and hard. Was widely used for barrels because tyloses in wood make it water tight and resistant to rot. Used for beams, railroad ties, flooring and furniture. Prized for framing timbers in wooden boats.
Interesting Facts: Quartersawn white oak, with its distinctive grain and dimensional stability was the primary wood used by Stickley and other makers of Mission style furniture. The iconic leaf shape of white oak is often used for logos and symbols.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$70.

Swamp White Oak

Latin name: Quercus bicolor
Height: 60'-75', up to 100'
Width: 50'-60'
Growth Rate: medium
Site Requirements: Swamp white oak grows best in full sun, with moist to wet, deep, acidic soils. Development of a 2-layer root system allows it to grow well in areas that are flooded in spring but markedly dry in summer.
Physical Description: Native trees with an open, irregularly shaped crown, with the lower limbs persisting. Bark is dark gray, scaly or flat-ridged, often peeling off in large, ragged, papery curls. The alternate, lobed leaves (3-7" long) have a two-tone appearance, dark, shiney-green on top with a silvery-white underside. Leaves turn to golden or orange brown in fall. Acorn, 1 inch long, tan, borne singly or double on a long stalk (2 inches), bowl-shaped cap covers about 1/3 of nut.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Trees of swamp white oak provide cover for birds and mammals. The acorns are sweet and are an important food for wildlife such as squirrels, mice, white-tailed deer, beaver, black bear, and a variety of birds, including ducks and turkey. In a study from Wisconsin, swamp white oak acorns were found to make up 27 percent of the diet of wild ducks.
Uses: It is similar to white oak (Q. alba) and usually is cut and sold under that name, but the amount of lumbered swamp white oak is a small fraction of the total for 'white oak.' Also, because the lateral branches of swamp white oak tend to persist (compared to white oak), the wood is knottier and less valuable. The wood is used for furniture, cabinets, veneers, interior finishing, and flooring, as well as for boxes, crates, fence posts, railroad ties, and beams and boards for general construction.
Interesting Facts: Some Native Americans used swamp white oak to treat cholera, broken bones and consumption. Mulch of the dead leaves is reported to repel slugs, grubs, and various insects.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30

Allegheny Chinquapin - also known as American Chinquapin or Dwarf Chestnut

Latin name: Castanea pumila
Height: 10 to 20 feet
Width: 10 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun. Soil well drained, moist to dry.
Physical Description: Deciduous large shrub or small tree. Usually a multi-stemmed shrub with dense rounded habit. Bark, brown to dark grey. Smooth on young stems, somewhat furrowed and platy on older stems. Leaves long pointed oval, 3 to 6 inches long and coarsely toothed. Glossy dark green on top, pale fuzzy on underside. New lateral branches with 10 or more alternate leaves often held in a single plane, almost like a giant compound leaf. Leaves and lateral branching similar to American chestnut. However, chestnut leaves are much longer, thinner textured, and have smooth undersides. Both male and female flowers in clusters of 4 to 6 inch long catkins. Female flowers develop into clusters of 1-inch spiny burs, each bur containing a single, glossy brown, edible nut. Burs are in prickly clusters and split open when the nuts are ripe. The acorn-size nuts are round rather than flattened on one side like American chestnut. Nut production can begin at 3 or 4 years, with heavy crops by 6 year old plants. Less susceptible to chestnut blight than American chestnut. Tough and durable species tolerant of drought and poor sandy or rocky soil.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Outstanding wildlife food for many species.
Uses: The little nuts are delicious, and have potential as a nut crop. Chinquapin is planted for wildlife habitat, land reclamation, and for its nuts. The small size, dense glossy foliage, clustered burs, and compact form make it an interesting and attractive species suitable for smaller sites.
Interesting Facts: One of the plants described by Captain John Smith from a 1606 voyage to Virginia. "They have a small fruit growing on little trees, husked like a Chesnut, but the fruit most like a very small Acorne. This they call Chechinquamins, which they esteem a great daintie".
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30 only.

Osage Orange or Hedge-apple, Bois d'arc

Latin name: Maclura pomifera
Height: 30 to 50 feet
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Prefers well drained soil, but tolerates wide range of site conditions. Tolerates road salt and air pollution Fully hardy in zone 5 and grows especially well in central and southern New York. Tolerant of occasional flooding.
Physical Description: Medium size tree. Broad rounded crown with short stout trunk. Apt to be somewhat irregular in shape. Odd and distinctive branching pattern. Bark is brown on younger branches becomes ridged and furrowed on trunk and older branches. Often shows the bright orange of inner bark on trunk. Typically has stout thorns, but some trees are almost thornless. Leaves are alternate along young branches, grow in whorls from short shoots on older branches. Glossy oval leaves with long pointed tips are 4 to5 inches long with smooth margins. Fall color bright yellow. Foliage has clean attractive appearance and is rarely bothered by insects. Male and female flowers on separate trees. Female trees produce grapefruit sized, inedible green fruit with pleasant citrus fragrance. Actually a member of mulberry family despite superficial resemblance to citrus.
Wildlife Value: It can be planted as a hedge to provide wildlife cover and food. The fruit is sometimes eaten by deer and the seeds are popular with squirrels and birds.
Uses: Fruit used to repel insects. Can be grown as dense thorny hedge. Coppices readily. Wood extremely hard and heavy, yellow to orange and highly rot-resistant. Becoming popular for turning, furniture and for boatbuilding. High BTU value firewood. Male trees make good street trees, but female trees are best planted where the big fruits won't be a nuisance.
Interesting Facts: Osage-orange is an intriguing Ice Age survivor that once grew as far north as Ontario, and whose unusual large fruits were likely eaten by mastodons and other extinct species. After the Ice Age, it ended up being restricted to a small range around the Texas-Oklahoma border, where the local Native American tribes used its tough hard wood for bows. The name "bois d'arc" means wood for bows. European settlers planted it for hedges and used the rot-resistant wood for fence posts and railroad ties.
Seedling size and cost: 3 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$70.

American Sycamore, American Plane Tree, Buttonball Tree

Latin name: Platanus occidentalis
Height: 70 to 100 feet
Width: 50 to 80 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun. Soil, deep, moist to wet. Will grow in alkaline soils. Very tolerant of seasonal flooding.
Physical Description: Large deciduous tree, with showy mottled bark. Typically found growing along streams and in floodplains. One of the largest eastern deciduous trees. Long-lived and fast growing. Can develop massive trunk, up to 10 feet in diameter. Very old trees may become hollow at base. Big stout root system holds tree (and soil) securely on erosion-prone streambank. Crown broad and open. Stout branches spread almost horizontally on trees growing on open sites, tend to be more upright on trees on crowded sites. Reddish brown twigs have distinctive zigzag look. Decorated in winter with ball-like, 1-inch seed heads, dangling on long stalks. Bark is spectacular, flaking off in rounded flakes to reveal smooth inner bark in various shades of tan, pale yellow, grey-green, light greys, and white. Lower trunk eventually develops permanent cover of flaky grey-brown bark, but upper trunk and lower limbs keep the characteristic mottled pattern. Upper limbs often become pure white, a dazzling sight on a sunny day in late fall to early spring. Seen from a distance, branches can appear to be covered with snow. Large, dark green, 3 to 5 lobed leaves. Shaped somewhat like maple leaf, but larger and more coarsely toothed. Leaves often 6 to 9 inches wide.
Wildlife Value: bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Seeds eaten by many birds in winter. Hollows in trunks and branches provide dens and shelter for many species of mammals and birds. Abundant sap used by sapsuckers. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Tough, light colored wood hard to split. Now mostly used for pulp. Wood formerly used for food boxes and utensils because it does not affect food flavor or odor. Sometimes used for butcher blocks. One of the most magnificent riparian trees for large sites. Enormous size, and susceptibility to anthracnose blight, limits use as urban tree despite its general toughness. Best planted in natural areas where it has sufficient space for roots to spread. Anthracnose seems to be much less common in trees on natural sites, but can occur after a very cold wet spring. Too large for most yards and urban parks, but makes splendid tree for streamside planting where it can provide erosion protection in flood-prone areas.
Interesting Facts: One of the parents of hybrid tree, London plane, which is widely planted in urban areas. American sycamore can be distinguished from London plane by its whiter inner bark and only a single buttonball seed head on each stem. London plane has greener inner bark, and 2 or more buttonballs per stem. Very large hollow trunks have even been used as dwellings by humans, as well as by large animals. Smaller hollow trunks were used to make all manner of useful objects such as barrels, pails, and cisterns. Native Americans used the hollow trunks for canoes, storage containers, and drums.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30 only

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Shrubs/Small Trees

Order 25 for $20 and 100 for $60 except as noted. Minimum Height 5". New York source. See Nursery Stock Availability page for status of availability since some species sell out quickly.

bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder indicates native species that support at least 60 species of insects that birds rely on to raise their young. (96% of our songbirds require insect larvae to raise their young.)

bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators indicates native species that provide food for pollinators. The icons match those used within the brochure.

American Plum

Latin name: Prunus americanus
Height: 5-30 feet
Width: 5 to 20 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Soil moist, well drained.
Physical Description: Small tree or spreading shrub. In the wild, grows as small understory tree in open forests, but also grows in open areas. Can spread by root suckers. Broad open crown and short trunk. Young bark smooth, dark gray, becoming rough and scaly with age. Branches may have spines. Blooms in spring before leaves open. Flowers white, about 1 inch across with five petals and are very fragrant. Leaves 2 to 4 inches long, oval with pointed tip and finely toothed margin. Upper surface is dark green, looks rather rough textured. Fruit about 1 inch in diameter, occurring singly or in clusters, yellow to red when ripe. Ripe fruit become soft and succulent, and have delicious flavor. Single stone (seed) is not as large as might be expected in a wild fruit.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Important pollinator plant, especially for native bees. Much used by wildlife for food, browse and cover.
Uses: Beautiful native fruit tree with outstanding flowers. Used for wildlife planting, windbreaks, and restoration planting. Good for erosion control because of spreading root system. Can be used as native hedge plant.
Interesting Facts: The taste of wild plum is much more intense than that of larger cultivated plums, and a reminder that our wild fruit species are well worth growing for people as well as for wildlife. There is a special value to seasonal wild fruits which are not available year around (except as preserves). They are fruits to anticipate and to savor.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 year seedling. Height. 5". New York source. 25/$30 only

Arrowwood

Latin name: Viburnum dentatum
Height: 6 to 10 feet
Width: 4 to 8 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade. Soil well drained to wet. Observed growing on open sites ranging from dry hillsides to cattail wetlands.
Physical Description: Deciduous multi-stemmed shrub. General form - straight slender trunks with much branched stems forming a rounded crown. New shoots are straight as an arrow. Bark grayish brown, smooth. Leaves are opposite, 1 to 3 inches long, shining green on top, lighter below. Leaf shape ranges from pointed oval to pointed elliptical, strongly veined, and has regular, rather coarse teeth. Arrowwood foliage is quite distinctive with its markedly opposite leaves, clear fresh green color and rather crisp texture. Fall color is remarkably varied, ranging from purples, reds and pinks to shades of orange peach and yellow. Flowers small, creamy white, in flat top clusters 2 to 4 inches in diameter, nicely held above the leaves. Berries are dark blue to black, rather small, about ¼ inch in diameter, in flat topped clusters, sometimes with pinkish stems. The fruit is held far longer than most shrubs, usually well into winter.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Outstanding shrub for wildlife, especially as winter food for birds. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Very versatile shrub for riparian areas, wildlife planting, and wetland restoration. Also useful for multi-species living snow fences and for wildlife fence rows.
Interesting Facts: The very straight new shoots were used to make arrows, hence the name.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height. 5". New York source. 25/$30 only

Northern Bayberry

Latin name: Morella pensylvanica, formerly Myrica pensylvanica
Height: 5 to 10 feet
Width: 5-10 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist, well drained soil. tolerant of a wide range of soil types, but as one of the few shrubs which can fix nitrogen, grows well on even the poorest sandy soils. Extremely salt tolerant. Hardy in Saratoga.
Physical Description: A remarkably versatile shrub, bayberry is equally at home in Long Island sand dunes and in wooded inland fens. This sun-loving shrub is tolerant of a wide range of soil types, but as one of the few shrubs which can fix nitrogen, it can grow well on even the poorest sandy soils. In warmer zones it is often evergreen, holding its aromatic leathery green leaves all winter. Deciduous (sometimes evergreen) spreading shrub. Multi-stemmed with dense foliage, rounded form. Leaves glossy, fragrant, 2 to 4 inches long, narrow oval with teeth near the tip. Leaves are alternate along the stem, often clustered densely at branch tips. Female plants have 1/8 inch waxy gray berries on lower stems.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder The berries are held well into winter and are eaten by many bird species
Uses: Bayberry makes a fine urban or roadside shrub because of its high salt tolerance and its resistance to insects and diseases. It can be pruned as a hedge or allowed to spread as a low maintenance ground cover shrub.
Interesting Facts: The leaves make great potpourri, and the waxy gray berries are the source of fragrant bayberry candles.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$30, 100/$60

Beach Plum

Latin name: Prunus maritima
Height: 4 to 10 feet
Width: 4 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Although it is a coastal species, beach plum grows on a wide range of sites and is hardy in Saratoga. It prefers well drained soils, dislikes clay. Highly salt tolerant
Physical Description: Deciduous spread shrub. Usually multi-stemmed but may grow as single stemmed small tree. Leaves alternate, oval and finely toothed, 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches long. White flowers with 5 petals, fruit round plums ¾ inch to 1 inch long, yellow or red to black with whitish bloom. Bark on young stems shiny reddish brown with horizontal lenticels, becoming rough and dark brown on older stems.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators A top wildlife food. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Coastal planting, wildlife areas, dune stabilization. Small size, interesting form and salt tolerance make beach plum an attractive choice for many urban and suburban situations, particularly for natural areas and wildlife plantings.
Interesting Facts: Beach plum thrives far from beaches. At the Saratoga State Tree Nursery, the beach plums in the seed production orchard have excellent crops of plump, delicious-looking, little plums. Alas for lovers of beach plum jelly, these plums are strictly reserved for seed to grow more seedlings.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 year seedling. Height. 5". New York source. 25/$30 only

Bristly Locust

Latin name: Robinia hispida
Height: 3 to 8 feet
Width: 3 to 8 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, medium to dry soils. Because it is a nitrogen-fixing species, it can grow on extremely poor soils. Has been grown on acid soils with pH as low as 3.5, and on alkaline soils with pH up to 8.
Physical Description: Deciduous running shrub. Stems upright, with branched flared crowns. Will spread naturally by root sprouts into extensive thickets, especially in eroding soil. Intriguing looking shrub because it is literally covered with stiff reddish brown bristles, especially on young stems. Older bark is brownish with conspicuous lenticels. Leaves alternate, 7 to 9 inches long, compound, with 9 to 13 leaflets. Leaf stems have a pair of small spines at the base. Leaflets oval, about 1 inch long, soft green above and lighter green below. Flowers are stunning, big hanging clusters of rose pink, pea-like blossoms each almost an inch long. They are followed by 2 to 3 inch long, hanging seed pods. Although the pods are fairly flat, they look much plumper because of their thick coat of stiff, upright, reddish bristles. The plants look quite fierce with their bristles, but aside from the paired thorns at bases of the leaves, they are not as thorny as they appear to be. The bristles are more like scrub brush bristles, stiff enough to stand straight, but flexible enough to be easily bent.
Wildlife Value: Flowers have value for honey, thickets provide some cover for various species. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Reclamation of mined land, slope stabilization and soil improvement. Especially useful for anchoring eroding soils and gravels because exposed roots quickly develop suckers.
Interesting Facts: This is the Arnot bristly locust developed at the USDA NRCS Big Flats Plant Materials Center in New York State.
Note: Despite its small size and beautiful flowers, this shrub should not be planted on confined sites or in yards. It is intended for reclamation of mined land and other barren sites where its fast spread by root sprouting is an advantage rather than a liability.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$30, 100/$60

Buttonbush

Latin name: Cephalanthus occidentalis
Height: 5 to 10 feet
Width: 4 to 8 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist to wet soil. Will grow on well drained sites with adequate moisture. Often found in cattail marshes and pond shorelines.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Often multi-stemmed, but may have single trunk. May sometimes show distinctive right angle branching. Habit ranges from rounded, dense shrub to open irregular habit in the wild. Leaves opposite, 3 to 4 inches long, rather leathery, smooth margin.
Wonderful snowball-like spheres of tiny white fragrant flowers about 1 inch in diameter. Decorative round green seed heads on long stems turn brown when ripe. Bark smooth on young plants, developing flaking texture.
Wildlife Value: bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Nectar plant for butterflies, hummingbirds and other pollinators. Seeds eaten by many birds.
Uses: Riparian restoration, rain gardens, wildlife habitat and butterfly gardens
Interesting Facts: Attractive flaking bark, unusual branching, and the round seed heads make buttonbush striking even in winter. Truly unique in bloom.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height. 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60.

Eastern Red Cedar

Latin name: Juniperus virginiana
Height: 10 to 40 feet
Width: 6 to 20 feet
Growth Rate: Slow
Site Requirements: Full sun, well drained soil. Often found on dry ridges and rock outcrops. Does well on limestone soils as well as more acid soils. Although highly drought resistant, it will make better growth in well drained, deep soils - as long as it has full sun.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree with dense foliage. Very fragrant. Narrow habit when young, becoming more spreading and conical with age.Has two types of foliage, juvenile and adult. Juvenile foliage (found on seedlings and young trees): bluefish-green needles ¼ inch long, with sharp ends. Adult foliage: smooth, dark olive green, 1/16 long, scale-like needles held close to twigs. Separate male and female trees. Males have tiny yellowish pollen cones. Females produce berry-like, blue cones about 1/8 to ¼ inch in diameter. Bark thin, red-brown and gray, shredding in strips.
Wildlife Value: Berries are important food for many birds. Dense foliage provides good cover for many species. Foliage browsed by deer.
Uses: Wildlife, reclamation planting on dry sites. Aromatic red heartwood is used to line cedar closets. Wood is very rot-resistant, but uses limited due to small size. Used for rough, but long-lasting, fence posts.
Interesting Facts: Traditional wood for cedar pencils.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$30, 100/$60

Gray Dogwood

Latin name: Cornus racemosa
Height: 4 to 10 feet
Width: 4 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade, well drained to moist soils. Quite drought tolerant.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Upright habit, stems not sprawling. Spreads by root suckers, will form a smoothly rounded mound. Thin red-brown to gray twigs. Opposite leaves, oval to elliptical shape, 2 ½ inches long, medium green. Clusters of small white flowers followed by white berries on bright red-pink stems. Bark light gray, smooth in younger plants, becoming rougher with age. Leaves turn a distinctive purplish-burgundy color in fall, which contrasts nicely with the white berries held on conspicuous hot pink stems.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Berries are a bird magnet, flowers attract butterflies and other pollinating insects.
Uses: Soil stabilization, windbreaks, fence rows.
Interesting Facts: Gray dogwood, once considered a bit of a weed for its ability to spread in disturbed areas, is one of the few native shrubs that can persist along roadsides invaded by buckthorn and shrub honeysuckle. In the wild, gray dogwood grows on a remarkably wide range of sites, from wetland edges to extremely dry rocky areas. Tough as nails.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$30, 100/$60

Highbush Cranberry

Latin name: Viburnum opulus
Height: 8 to 12 feet
Width: 8 to 12 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Upright growth habit. Leaves opposite, 3 lobed, 2 to 4 inches long. Fall color shades of red. White flowers in flat topped clusters, followed by bright red berries.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Berries a top favorite of many birds. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Hedges, windbreaks, riparian planting, wildlife habitat
Interesting Facts: Not a true cranberry. There are two subspecies of highbush cranberry, one European and one American, both equally attractive to birds.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20

Nannyberry

Latin name: Viburnum lentago
Height: 8 to 15 feet
Width: 4 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Will tolerate wide range of soil types including limestone soils.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Form often tall, rather narrow form with rounded top. Usually multi-stemmed. Leaves glossy, oval, 2 to 4 inches long with very finely serrated margin. Leaf stems may be slightly winged. Small white flowers in flat umbels, followed by clusters of oval, 3/8 inch berries which turn dark blue then black. Bark is dark grey, looks nearly black.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators A favorite of many birds. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Wildlife, hedges and windbreaks, riparian habitat restoration.
Interesting Facts: One of the taller viburnums, can make attractive small tree when grown as single stem.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$30 only.

Winterberry

Latin name: Ilex verticillata
Height: 5 feet to 15 feet
Width: 3 feet to 12 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Grows well in wet or acidic soil. Is also versatile enough to grow in dry or sandy soil. This shrub is erosion and air pollution tolerant. It prefers full sun to partial shade.
Physical Description: Medium sized shrub with grey to black bark with knobby lenticels. The branches are densely set and grow upwards in a zigzagging pattern. The leaves are an oblong shape that is sharply double-toothed. The leaves turn yellow or maroon in the fall. The winterberry plant produces small white flowers and scarlet red berry-like fruit that remain on the plant until mid winter.
Wildlife Value:bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinatorsThe fruit of the winterberry is eaten by small mammals and nearly 50 species of birds. Rabbits, moose, and deer browse on the bark of this plant.
Uses: The persistent bright red fruits of this shrub make it a popular shrub for landscaping. Can be used in hedges or rain gardens.
Interesting Facts: This shrub is sometimes nicknamed "fever bush", as its fruits were traditionally used medicinally by Native Americans.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60

Serviceberry spp.

Latin name: Amelanchier spp.
Height: Variable
Width: Variable
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Grows well in wet or acidic soil. Prefers full sun to partial shade.
Physical Description: The Saratoga Nursery collects seed from native species of Amelanchier (such as round-leaved serviceberry, shadbush, and Alleghany serviceberry). Collections are mixed together and sown to produce the seedlings propagated. Seedlings received by customers can be of one or many varieties. Serviceberry trees and shrubs are members of the Rosaceae Family. They are deciduous, can be single to multi-stemmed, and heights will range between 6 to 30 feet in height. Flowers are usually white in color and fruiting begins as soon as early June. The flowers are frequented by pollinators and the fruit is readily eaten by birds and mammals. Servicberry plants offer beautiful blossoms, pome fruits, and autumn leaf colors to the landscape.
Wildlife Value: Serviceberry plants are used as deer and rabbit browse, house a number of native caterpillars and the white blossoms attract butterflies.
Uses: Ornamental. Some species of serviceberry have sweet berries that can be made into pies and jams. The wood was traditionally used for bows and fishing rods.
Interesting Facts: The flowers appear in spring "when the shad run", which is why this plant is sometimes nicknamed "shadbush".
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20 only.

Northern White Cedar, also known as Arborvitae

Latin name: Thuja occidentalis
Height: 20 to 60 feet
Width: 10 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist well drained soil. Does well on limestone, also grows in wet soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Form rounded, narrow to conical when young, with dense foliage. Older trees develop tapered crowns and straight long trunks in forest conditions. Frequently grown in hedges and may appear multi-stemmed because of very low branched trunk. Foliage shiny, dark green, flattened sprays of twigs with tiny smooth scale-like needles. Cones about ½ inch long, brown with only a few scales. Bark gray and finely furrowed.
Wildlife Value: Excellent cover for many species because of dense foliage. Widely used as winter deer browse.
Uses: Hedges, screens, windbreaks, lumber. Wood is very light, rot-resistant and fairly strong.
Interesting Facts: Wood prized for planking small boats because of light weight. The famous 19th century Rushton canoes, built in upstate New York, were planked with white cedar. Most famous Rushton canoe 'Sairy Gamp', was 10 ½ feet long and weighed less than 10 pounds.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". 25/$20, 100/$60.

Prairie Willow

Latin name: Salix humilis var. humilis
Height: 2 to 8 feet
Width: 4 to 8 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow.
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade. Soil well drained to moist. Upland species which grows in drier habitats than most willows. Does well on sandy soil.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Can form dense thickets, but not an aggressive spreader. Leaves alternate, 2 to 4 inches long and ½ to ¾ inch wide. Leaf shape is typically oblong with a rounded tip. Upper surface is grayish green to dark green, and not shiny. Lower surface is lighter green to whitish, softly fuzzy, with prominently raised veins. The edges of the leaves are often revolute (slightly rolled under). Unlike many somewhat similar willows, prairie willow does not have noticeable stipules (leafy projections at the bases of the leaves). Blooms very early in spring before leaves emerge. Male and female catkins on separate plants.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Special value for native bees because it provides early spring food resources when few other plants are in bloom. Like other willows, it is valuable to wildlife for food and cover. Leaves and bark valuable for browse, buds and catkins eaten by many birds.
Uses: Used for wildlife habitat, restoration planting and for soil stabilization. Can be used for bioengineering on sites too dry for most willows. Can be coppiced to produce willow rods for basketry.
Interesting Facts: One of New York's few upland willows which thrives in seemingly willow-unfriendly dry areas, such as the Albany Pine Bush. Other upland willows are the comparatively rare dwarf prairie willow, Salix humilis var. tristis, also at home in the Pine Bush, and the endangered sand dune willow, Salix cordata, which grows in Great Lakes shoreline sand dunes.
Size, source and cost:
1 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$30, 100/$60

Pussy Willow

Latin name: Salix discolor
Height: 6 to 15 feet
Width: 4 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Will grow in wetlands.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Can be grown as multi-stemmed shrub or as small single-trunked tree. Tree form branches shorter angular, foliage usually smaller. Very variable. Leaves alternate, elliptical, 2 to 4 inches long, light green to bluish green above, white below. Flower buds are gray and silky, later open into male or female catkins. Multi-stemmed shrub can be maintained by coppicing to get long shoots and lots of flower buds.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators important browse species for many animals and birds. Willow buds, leaves twigs and bark provide food year around. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: streambank stabilization, rain gardens, flower production for floral arrangements, bioengineering structures, riparian protection.
Interesting facts: Willow bark contains salicylic acid original source of aspirin. Used by native Americans as pain killer.
Size, source and cost: 1 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60.

Red Osier Dogwood "Ruby"

Latin name: Cornus sericea
Height: 6 to 9 feet
Width: 6 to 9 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist, well drained soil to seasonally wet soils. Will grow in wetlands.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Multi-stemmed, growing in wide mound, spreads by rooting stems. Bright red twigs and younger branches. Leaves opposite, oval, 1 ½ to 3 inches long. Clusters of small white flowers, followed by white berries. Bark smooth and red, becoming gray and slightly furrowed on older stems.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Flowers draw butterflies and other pollinators, berries eaten by many birds, stems and leaves browsed by deer and small mammals
Uses: Soil stabilization, wildlife planting, hedges, windbreaks, basketry.
Interesting Facts: "Ruby" is a Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) introduction propagated from a plant found growing in Painted Post NY. This is propagated by cuttings which essentially are clones of the original plant. They will be consistent in physical characteristics. This selection has exceptional stem-rooting (layering) ability for use in stream bank stabilization and soil bioengineering. Can be repeatedly coppiced, either for production of rooting whips or to maintain it as a dense hedge.
Size, source and cost: 2 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60.

Red Stem Dogwood

Latin name: Cornus sericea, also known as red osier dogwood
Height: 6 to 9 feet
Width: 6 to 9 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist, well drained soil to seasonally wet soils. Will grow in wetlands.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Multi-stemmed, growing in wide mound , spreads by rooting stems. Bright red twigs and younger branches. Leaves opposite, oval, 1 ½ to 3 inches long. Clusters of small white flowers, followed by white berries. Bark smooth and red, becoming gray and slightly furrowed on older stems.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Flowers draw butterflies and other pollinators, berries eaten by many birds, stems and leaves browsed by deer and small mammals.|
Uses: Soil stabilization, wildlife planting, hedges, windbreaks, basketry.
Interesting Facts: To avoid confusion with the NRCS Red Osier Dogwood "Ruby", a named selection propagated by cuttings, the name red-stem dogwood is used here to describe Cornus sericea plants grown from seed from a variety of sources. Plants grown from seed have natural variation.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60.

Sandbar Willow

Latin Name: Salix interior
Height: 3 - 10 feet
Width: 3 - 10 feet
Growth Rate: fast
Site Requirements: full sun, wet to moist soil, tolerates intermittent standing water
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Very narrow, gray green leaves with widely spaced teeth. Fine textured, feathery foliage on slender tan stems. Vigorous spreading growth. Typically forms dense, multi-stemmed mounds of foliage. Bright yellow in fall.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Good cover for birds and animals, browse for deer, buds eaten by grouse. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Stream bank stabilization, bioengineering, green infrastructure, living fences
Interesting facts: Sandbar willow is excellent for stabilizing streambanks and for use in living fences, snow fences and bioengineered structures. Its narrow leaves give it a delicate feathery look, and it could be used in landscapes for almost a bamboo-like effect. It does spread, an advantage for shoreline stabilization, but something that should be planned for in more urban settings.
Size, source and cost: 1 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60.

Silky Dogwood

Latin name: Cornus amomum ssp. amomum, also known as swamp dogwood
Height: 6 to 10 feet
Width: 6 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, well drained to wet soils. Needs some moisture, is not highly drought tolerant.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Multi-stemmed shrub with dense foliage and rounded form. New stems reddish purple with fine silky hair. Flexible stems will root where they are in contact with the ground. Leaves opposite, oval with sharp tip, 2 to 4 inches long. Clusters of small white flowers in spring, followed by blue berries which ripen to black. Young bark smooth, greenish or brown, becoming brown, slightly furrowed .
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Flowers attract butterflies and other pollinating insects. Fruit eaten by many birds. Leaves and twigs browsed by deer, rabbits.
Uses: Riparian restoration, stream bank stabilization, windbreaks.
Interesting Facts: One of the more shade tolerant shrubs for moist soil. Much used for restoration and stabilization because of ability to readily root from stems.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60.

Streamco Willow

Latin name: Salix purpurea "Streamco," also known as purpleosier willow
Height: 10 to 15 feet
Width: 10 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Upright clumping habit, forms long stems, especially when coppiced. Young stems purplish to reddish brown. Leaves alternate, but often appear to be opposite. Narrow leaves 2 to 4 inches long, bluish green with silvery white undersides.
Wildlife Value: Important browse species for many animals and birds. Willow buds, leaves twigs and bark provide food year around. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Streambank stabilization, rain gardens, bioengineering structures, riparian protection. Also used for basket-making, rustic furniture, living structures.
Interesting facts: A variety of European basket willow that will produce long flexible shoots when coppiced. During late 19th early 20th century, willow basket making was a major industry in central NY.
Size, source and cost: 1 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60.

Virginia Rose

Latin name: Rosa virginiana
Height: 4 to 6 feet
Width: 2 to 6 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Does well in sandy soils, tolerant of salt spray.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. New canes dark red, paired slightly curved thorns. Leaves dark green and shiny with distinctive broad "wings" or stipules at the base of the stem. Flowers large, pink, single, about 1 ½ to 2 inches across. Blooms in late spring- early summer. Smooth red hips.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Hips excellent food for many birds, leaves and stems are browsed by deer and rabbits. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Soil and dune stabilization, roadside and beach planting, wildlife cover and food, hedges.
Interesting Facts: Can be used as native replacement for rugosa rose because of similar site preferences.
Size, source and cost: 1-year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$30, 100/$60

Wetland Rose

Latin name: Rosa palustris
Height: 4 to 7 feet
Width: 2 to 4 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, wet to well drained soils. Often found growing with other wetland shrubs such as buttonbush and red osier dogwood in cattail marshes or along stream banks. Will also grow well on non-wetland sites, but does not like drought.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Upright, often narrow shrub with rounded top. New stems red, with slightly hooked thorns in pairs. Older stems often show lengthwise striping of light and dark brown bark. Leaves can be distinguished from those of other roses by the very narrow stipules at the base of each leaf stem. Leaflets often distinctly toothed, soft to glossy looking. Fall color: wines, reds, oranges and yellows. Blooms in late spring- early summer.Fragrant, pink 5 petaled flowers followed by 3/8 inch red hips with soft prickles.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Hips excellent food for many birds, leaves and stems are browsed by deer and rabbits. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Riparian planting, wetlands, hedges.
Interesting Facts: Although species can grow fairly large and will spread into extensive colonies in wetlands, it does not form impassable tangles like the invasive multiflora rose.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2-year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60. 25/$30, 100/$60

Wild Grape

Latin name: Vitis riparia, also known as river grape, riverbank grape
Height: 40 to 70 feet
Width: Variable
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Moist well drained soil. Although wild grape is a riparian species, it grows on a remarkably wide range of sites, thriving even in blighted industrial areas. Fairly drought tolerant, probably the most cold-hardy woody vine.
Physical Description: Deciduous woody vine. Long stems with attractive reddish-brown shredding bark. Young shoots light green, climbing with large forked tendrils, which coil strongly around supports. Leaves 2 to 6 inches long, light green, thin, shining, usually three lobed. Leaf form variable; some leaves may be very deeply lobed and toothed. Fruit tight clumps of dark blue to black grapes, about ¼ inch in diameter.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Berries are winter food for many bird and animal species, the bark is used by birds for nest material, and the vines are preferred nest sites for species such as cardinals. It is one of the most valuable species for wildlife, not only because of the fruit, but also because the swinging vine stems provide nest sites safe from the majority of predators.
Uses: Tough, hardy and fast-growing, it can be used to cover fences and shade structures. It climbs with strong coiling tendrils and can be grown on wall trellises as green walls to help cool buildings. It can grow tall enough to shade sides of multi-story buildings and is recommended as a native substitute for invasive wisteria vines. Although wild grape has a reputation for being aggressive, regular pruning makes it a beautiful asset for shading a house or covering a fence. Plus, grapevine prunings make excellent wreaths and decorations.
Interesting Facts: The fruit is very tart when it first ripens and makes excellent preserves. After a hard frost the berries become very sweet. A magnificent and under-rated vine that has tremendous potential for green infrastructure, particularly for cooling and air quality improvement. Attracts pollinating insects.
Note: Do not allow any vines to climb up trees. Encourage them to climb trellises, fences, buildings and other supports where they can provide shade and other benefits while getting the light that they want.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 or 2-year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60.

Staghorn Sumac

Latin name: Rhus typhina
Height: 30-35 feet
Width: 20 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Tolerates a wide variety of conditions.
Physical Description: A woody plant that can be considered either a large shrub or a small tree. Produces small clusters of greenish-yellow flowers and red, hairy fruit which are important to wildlife.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Fruits and seeds eaten by pheasants, rabbits, quail and over 300 species of songbirds.
Uses: Ornamental plantings, hedges, pioneer species
Interesting Facts: This highly tolerant species can be planted on drastically disturbed sites. The plant is named for its forking, velvety textured branches that resemble stag horns.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 5". 25/$20, 100/$60

Winged Sumac, Shining Sumac, Dwarf Sumac

Latin Name: Rhus copallinum
Height: 4 to 20 feet
Width: 5 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Soil moist to dry. Tolerates drought, salt spray. Found in a variety of challenging habitats, including coastal grasslands, maritime forests, dry rocky summits, and serpentine barrens.
Physical Description: Small deciduous tree, often spreading into multi-stemmed shrub. May be dwarfed by salt spray or shallow dry rocky soils, but will grow to full size on deeper soil. Habit resembles that of the familiar staghorn sumac, but smaller and less symmetrical. Stems often crooked, becoming quite picturesque with age. Leaves 12 to 18 inches long, alternate, and compound, with 7 to 15 narrow leaflets. The main leaf stem has distinctive wing. Leaflet margins are entire. Upper leaf surface dark green and very shiny. Fall color is spectacular, with the same brilliant color range of staghorn sumac, enhanced by the varnished look of the leaves. Male and female flowers on separate plants, both yellowish, conical clusters at the ends of the branches. Female flowers develop into clusters of small hard red fruit. The fruit clusters are less upright than those of staghorn sumac. Fruit held well into winter.
Wildlife Value: bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators Seeds reliable fall and winter food for many birds. Browsed by deer and rabbits. Host for over 50 moth and butterfly species. Of special value to native bees who use hollow twigs for nest material.
Uses: Highly ornamental small tree for dry demanding sites. Will spread by root suckering, especially if crowded by shade. Ideally it should have some space to spread, but can be kept in bounds in smaller yard by cutting/mowing unwanted root suckers. Important species for restoration of coastal habitats. Good species for restoration planting on poor dry soil.
Interesting facts: Sumac fruits can be used to make lemonade-flavored drink. Dried fruit can be ground to make lemony flavored spice. Twigs have core of soft pith, which can be removed to make hollow tubes for whistles, pipe stems and beads.
Size, source and cost: 2 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60

Witch Hazel

Latin name: Hamamelis virginiana
Height: 15 to 20 feet
Width: 15 to 20 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to shade, moist well drained soil. In the wild, often grows as an understory species and tolerates considerable shade.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Multi-stemmed habit, spreading and open in shade, upright and pyramidal in full sun. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long, oval to almost round. Bright yellow leaves in early fall are followed by tiny highly fragrant yellow flowers.
Wildlife Value: bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder The seeds and buds are a favorite winter food for grouse. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: It is the source of medicinal witch hazel. Witch Hazel can grow nicely in urban areas with adequate soil moisture. Because it is highly shade tolerant, Witch Hazel is a wonderful species to plant in the shade of a woodlot, where it can develop an interesting open habit.
Interesting facts: It is one of the only native plants which blooms in late fall and early winter. When ripe, the seed capsules explode open and may shoot seeds 30 feet or more.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2-year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$60

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Mixed Species Packets

**Nursery will chose the species

The Nursery reserves the right to make substitutions in any wildlife packet using a species suitable for the area to be planted.

Containerized Stock -

2-year plugs. Minimum height 6". New York source. 50 for $45. Containerized seedlings have been grown in plug trays in a greenhouse and are able to be planted summer through mid-fall since they are not bare-root. Depending on stock, these seedlings may be available until October each year.

bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder indicates native species that support at least 60 species of insects that birds rely on to raise their young. (96% of our songbirds require insect larvae to raise their young.)

bee icon showing tree species acts as a feeder for pollinators indicates native species that provide food for pollinators. The icons match those used within the brochure.

Eastern Hemlock

Latin name: Tsuga canadensis
Height: 50 to 75 feet
Width: 25 to 35 feet
Growth Rate: Slow to medium
Site Requirements: Partial sun to partial shade. Young trees are very shade tolerant. Soil moist, well drained. Said to prefer sandy acidic soils, but also does well on rocky limestone sites. Can take full sun if soil moisture is high. Does not tolerate flooding or prolonged drought. In natural forests, Eastern hemlock tends to be quite site-specific. It grows best on cool, sheltered sites, for example, in steep, shaded ravines, on north-facing to east-facing hillsides, at the edge of wooded swamps, and along forest streams.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Form pyramidal, with dense narrow crown and straight tapered trunk. Branches thin, flexible, becoming somewhat drooping with age. Foliage fine-textured, arranged horizontally on branches. Needles flat, ½ to ¾ inch long, and have blunt tips. Upper surface dark green, glossy. Lower surface pale green, with two parallel white lines. Twigs slender, grayish brown, with small buds. Cones ½ to ¾ inch long, with smooth rounded scales, hang from tips of twigs. Bark grey-brown and smooth in young trees, becoming rough and furrowed with age.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder Valuable shelter for birds and mammals, especially in winter. The flat branches of evergreen foliage provide excellent protection and cover, especially for larger birds such as wild turkey, grouse, owls and goshawks. Hemlock stands often used as deer yards. Seeds eaten by many birds, buds and foliage browsed by deer in winter. Casts exceptionally deep shade, which helps cool streams and maintain habitat for native cold water fish species such as brook trout.
Uses: Lumber and pulpwood. Over-harvested in 1800s, often solely for the bark which was processed for tannin used to tan leather. Hemlock stands on farm woodlots were often left to grow for future barn timbers.
Hemlock is now recognized as a keystone species in many eastern forest ecosystems, especially in stream corridors and watersheds. The heavy shade helps maintain a range of forest microclimates, suppress invasive plants, and provide cool shade for forest streams. Hemlock can be planted for watershed protection, wildlife habitat, and forest restoration. It is also prized for evergreen hedges because it becomes very dense with pruning. A beautiful tree for larger yards and urban parks. Resistant to winter storm damage because flexible branches shed snow and ice.
Interesting Facts: The flexible leader, or top shoot, tends to lean away from the direction of the prevailing wind. Very long-lived, to 300 or more years.
Seedling size and cost: 6", 50/$45
Note: Eastern hemlock is under attack by hemlock wooly adelgid (HWA) in much of its range, including New York State.
However, there are now treatments for adelgid infestations. Several biocontrol insects show promise for long term control, while new systemic insecticide treatment methods provide immediate control, even on old large trees, and in remote forest locations. Techniques such as soil injection and dormant season basal bark spray make it possible to save any size hemlock from adelgid.
There should be no hesitation about planting hemlock, especially where its unique qualities are needed to restore trout streams, forest habitat, and watersheds. Seedlings should be protected from deer until they are above browse height, and periodically checked for adelgid.
DEC fact sheet about hemlock wooly adelgid (PDF)
Additional information from Cornell on new insecticide treatments (Link Leaves DEC Website).

Balsam Fir

Latin name: Abies balsamea
Height: 40 to 70 feet
Width: 20 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist well drained soil. Prefers cool conditions.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Conical shape with narrow crown. Needles ¾ inch long, dark green, with rounded ends, very fragrant. Leaf scar round and flat. Cones upright, 2 to 3 inches long, disintegrate on tree leaving persistent central spike. Bark gray-brown, smooth with
blisters filled with fragrant resin.
Wildlife Value: bird icon showing the tree acts as a bird feeder wildlife cover, foliage and buds eaten by deer, seeds eaten by birds and squirrels.
Uses: Christmas trees, wreaths, pulpwood and lumber.
Interesting Facts: Traditional Christmas tree species long prized for its wonderful fragrance. Resin from bark, known as Canada Balsam, formerly used as optical adhesive for glass lenses and microscope slides.
Seedling cost: Minimum height 6". 50/$45

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