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Part 208: Landfill Gas Collection & Control Systems For Certain Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

(Statutory authority: Environmental Conservation Law, §§ 3-0301, 19-0301, 19-0302, 19-0303, 19-0305)

[Filed 9/22/04. Effective 30 days after filing.]

[page 1 of 1]

For administrative information about this posting, contact: Division of Air Resources. The Bureau of Stationary Sources at (518) 402-8403 is the contact for technical questions pertaining to this rule.

Contents:

Sec.

§208.1 Applicability

This section applies to owners or operators of any municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill meeting the conditions in subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) of this section. Owners and operators of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less than 2.5 million megagrams (or 2.5 million cubic meters) which meets the condition in subdivision (a) of this section must initially comply with section 208.3(a) of this Part. Physical or operational changes made to an existing landfill solely to comply with an emission guideline are not considered construction, reconstruction or modification for the purposes of this section. Activities required by or conducted pursuant to a CERCLA, RCRA, or State remedial action are not considered construction, reconstruction, or modification for purposes of this section.

(a) The landfill has commenced construction, reconstruction or modification or accepted waste at any time since November 8, 1987, or has additional design capacity available for future waste deposition.

(b) The landfill has a design capacity greater than or equal to 2.5 million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters. The landfill design capacity may be calculated in either megagrams or cubic meters for comparison with the exemption values. Any density conversions shall be documented and submitted with the report required under section 208.3(b) of this Part.

(c) The landfill has a nonmethane organic compound emission rate of 50 megagrams per year or more.

§208.2 Definitions

The following terms have the following meanings when used in this section:

(a) Active collection system means a gas collection system that uses gas mover equipment.

(b) Controlled landfill means any landfill at which collection and control systems are required under this section as a result of the nonmethane organic compounds emission rate.

(c) Design capacity means the maximum amount of solid waste a landfill can accept, as specified in the construction and operating permit or permit application. It includes waste in all closed disposal cells, all areas actively receiving waste, and all areas that are approved to be constructed in subsequent stages and were previously addressed in accordance with SEQR.

(d) Emission rate cutoff means the threshold annual emission rate to which a landfill compares its estimated emission rate to determine if control under the regulation is required.

(e) Enclosed combustor means an enclosed firebox which maintains a relatively constant limited peak temperature generally using a limited supply of combustion air. An enclosed flare is considered an enclosed combustor.

(f) Flare means an open combustor without enclosure or shroud.

(g) Gas mover equipment means the equipment (i.e., fan, blower, compressor) used to transport landfill gas through the header system.

(h) Interior well means any well or similar collection component located inside the perimeter of the landfill footprint. A perimeter well located outside the landfilled waste is not an interior well.

(i) Modification means an increase in the design capacity of the landfill by either lateral or vertical expansion based on design capacity as of May 31, 1991.

(j) Municipal solid waste landfill emissions or MSW landfill emissions means gas generated by the decomposition of organic waste deposited in an MSW landfill or derived from the evolution of organic compounds in the waste.

(k) NMOC means nonmethane organic compounds, as measured according to the provisions of subdivision (e) of this section.

(l) Nondegradable waste means any waste that does not decompose through chemical breakdown or microbiological activity. Examples include, but are not limited to, concrete, municipal waste combustor ash, and metals.

(m) Passive collection system means a gas collection system that solely uses positive pressure within the landfill to move the gas rather than using gas mover equipment.

(n) Sufficient density means any number, spacing, and combination of collection system components, including vertical wells, horizontal collectors, and surface collectors, necessary to maintain emission and migration control as determined by measures of performance set forth in this section.

(o) Sufficient extraction rate means a rate sufficient to maintain a negative pressure at all wellheads in the collection system without causing air infiltration, including any wellheads connected to the system as a result of expansion or excess surface emissions, for the life of the blower.

§208.3 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

(a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less than 2.5 million megagrams by mass or 2.5 million cubic meters by volume shall submit an initial design capacity report to the department as provided in section 208.8(a) of this Part. The owner or operator may calculate design capacity in either megagrams or cubic meters for comparison with the exemption values. Any density conversions shall be documented and submitted with the report. Submittal of the initial design capacity report shall fulfill the requirements of this section except as provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subdivision. For landfills that already have obtained and have submitted this information to the department through previous documentation (such as a closure plan, annual report, or permit application), the requirements of this subdivision may be waived upon approval of the department.

(1) The owner or operator shall submit to the department an amended design capacity report, as provided for in section 208.8(a)(3) of this Part.

(2) When an increase in the maximum design capacity of a landfill exempted from the provisions of section 208.3(b) through section 208.10 of this Part on the basis of the design capacity exemption in this subdivision results in a revised maximum design capacity equal to or greater than 2.5 million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters, the owner or operator shall comply with the provision of subdivision (b) of this section.

(b) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity equal to or greater than 2.5 million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters, shall submit an initial design capacity report to the department as provided in section 208.8(a) of this Part and either comply with paragraph (2) of this subdivision or calculate an NMOC emission rate for the landfill using the procedures specified in section 208.5 of this Part. The NMOC emission rate shall be recalculated annually, except as provided in section 208.8(b)(1)(ii) of this Part. The owner or operator of an MSW landfill subject to this section with a design capacity greater than or equal to 2.5 million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters is subject to title V permitting requirements under Part 201 of this Title.

(1) If the calculated NMOC emission rate is less than 50 megagrams per year, the owner or operator shall:

(i) submit an annual emission report to the department, except as provided for in section 208.8(b)(1)(ii) of this Part; and

(ii) recalculate the NMOC emission rate annually using the procedures specified in section 208.5(a)(1) of this Part until such time as the calculated NMOC emission rate is equal to or greater than 50 megagrams per year, or the landfill is closed pursuant to Part 360 of this Title;

(a) if the NMOC emission rate, upon recalculation required in this subparagraph, is equal to or greater than 50 megagrams per year, the owner or operator shall install a collection and control system in compliance with paragraph (2) of this subdivision.

(2) If the calculated NMOC emission rate is equal to or greater than 50 megagrams per year, the owner or operator shall:

(i) submit a collection and control system design plan and permit application prepared by a professional engineer to the department within one year. The landfill gas collection system should be addressed in a Part 360 of this Title permit application or modification, while the landfill gas control system should be addressed in a Part 201 of this Title permit application or modification. In addition to meeting the requirements of section 360-2.16(a) through (e) and Parts 200 et seq. of this Title, the owner and operator shall comply with the following:

(a) the collection and control system as described in the plan shall meet the design requirements of subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph;

(b) the collection and control system design plan shall include any alternatives to the design and operational standards, test methods, procedures, compliance measures, monitoring, recordkeeping or reporting provisions of sections 208.3 through 208.7 of this Part proposed by the owner or operator;

(c) the collection and control system design plan shall either conform with specifications for active collection systems in section 208.10 of this Part or include a demonstration to the USEPA's satisfaction of the sufficiency of the alternative provisions to section 208.10 of this Part;

(d) the USEPA shall review the information submitted under clauses (a), (b) and (c) of this subparagraph and either approve it, disapprove it, or request that additional information be submitted. Because of the many site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design, alternative systems may be necessary. A wide variety of system designs are possible, such as vertical wells, combination horizontal and vertical collection systems, or horizontal trenches only, leachate collection components, and passive systems;

(e) the design plan for the collection and control system shall include a schedule for the construction and installation of this system. This schedule shall include the following increments of progress:

(1) submittal of final control plan for the system;

(2) awarding of contracts for the system;

(3) initiation of on-site constriction or installation of the system;

(4) completion of on-site construction or installation of the system; and

(5) final compliance with this regulation. This schedule will be included in the title V and/or pre-construction permit required under Subpart 201-6 of this Title;

(ii) install a collection and control system that captures the gas generated within the landfill as required under clause (a) or (b) of this subparagraph and subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph within 30 months after the first annual report in which the emission rate equals or exceeds 50 megagrams per year, unless tier 2 or tier 3 sampling demonstrates that the emission rate is less than 50 megagrams per year, as specified in section 208.8(c)(1) or (2) of this Part. The air permit authorizing construction and operation of the collection and control system, required under Part 201 of this Title, shall contain the following increments of progress: the date upon which the final control plan for the system is to be submitted; the date upon which the awarding of contracts for the collection and control system is to occur; the date for initiation of construction or installation of the system and the date upon which completion of the on-site construction or installation of the collection and control system is to occur; and the date for final compliance with this regulation will occur;

(a) an active collection system shall:

(1) be designed to handle the maximum expected gas flow rate from the entire area of the landfill that warrants control over the intended use period of the gas control or treatment system equipment;

(2) collect gas from each area, cell, or group of cells in the landfill in which the initial solid waste has been placed for a period of five years or more if active; or two years or more if closed or at final grade;

(3) collect gas at a sufficient extraction rate;

(4) be designed to minimize off-site migration of subsurface gas;

(b) a passive collection system shall:

(1) comply with the provisions specified in subclauses (a)(1), (2) and (4) of this subparagraph;

(2) be installed with liners on the bottom and all sides in all areas in which gas is to be collected. The liners shall be installed as required under Part 360 of this Title;

(iii) route all the collected gas to a control system that complies with the requirements in either clause (a), (b), or (c) of this subparagraph:

(a) an open flare designed and operated in accordance with 40 CFR section 60.18 (see section 200.9 of this Title);

(b) a control system designed and operated to reduce NMOC by 98 weight-percent, or, when an enclosed combustion device is used for control, to either reduce NMOC by 98 weight percent or reduce the outlet NMOC concentration to less than 20 parts per million by volume, dry basis as hexane at three percent oxygen. The reduction efficiency or parts per million by volume shall be established by an initial performance test to be completed no later than 180 days after the initial startup of the approved system using the test methods specified in section 208.5(d) of this Part;

(1) if a boiler or process heater is used as the control device, the landfill gas stream shall be introduced into the flame zone;

(2) the control device shall be operated within the parameter ranges established during the initial or most recent performance test. The operating parameters to be monitored are specified in section 208.7 of this Part;

(c) route the collected gas to a treatment system that processes the collected gas for subsequent sale or use. All emissions from any atmospheric vent from the gas treatment system shall be subject to the requirements of subclauses (b)(1) and (2) of this subparagraph;

(iv) operate the collection and control device installed to comply with this section in accordance with the provisions of sections 208.4, 208.6 and 208.7 of this Part;

(v) the collection and control system may be capped or removed provided that all the following conditions are met:

(a) the landfill shall be no longer accepting solid waste and be permanently closed under the requirements of this Part;

(b) the collection and control system shall have been in operation a minimum of 15 years; and

(c) following the procedures specified in section 208.5(b) of this Part, the calculated NMOC gas produced by the landfill shall be less than 50 megagrams per year on three successive test dates. The test dates shall be no less than 90 days apart, and no more than 180 days apart.

(c) For the purposes of obtaining a title V permit under Part 201 of this Title, the owner or operator of a MSW landfill subject to this section with a design capacity less than 2.5 million megagrams or 2.5 million cubic meters is not subject to the requirement to obtain a title V permit under Part 201 of this Title, unless the landfill is otherwise subject to permitting under Part 201 of this Title.

(d) When a MSW landfill subject to this section is closed, the owner or operator is no longer subject to title V permitting requirements under Part 201 and if the following conditions are met:

(1) the landfill was never subject to the requirement for a control system under paragraph (b)(2) of this section; or

(2) the owner or operator meets the condition for control system removal specified in subparagraph (b)(2)(v) of this section.

§208.4 Operational standards for collection and control systems

(a) operate the collection system such that gas is collected from each area, cell, or group of cells in the MSW landfill in which solid waste has been in place for:

(1) five years or more if active; or

(2) two years or more if closed or at final grade;

(b) operate the collection system with negative pressure at each wellhead except under the following conditions:

(1) a fire or increased well temperature. The owner or operator shall record instances when positive pressure occurs in efforts to avoid a fire. These records shall be submitted with the annual reports as provided in section 208.8(f) of this Part;

(2) use of a geomembrane or synthetic cover. The owner or operator shall develop acceptable pressure limits in the design plan;

(3) a decommissioned well. A well may experience a static positive pressure after shut down to accommodate for declining flows. All design changes shall be approved by the department;

(c) operate each interior wellhead in the collection system with a landfill gas temperature less than 55° C and with either a nitrogen level less than 20 percent or an oxygen level less than 5 percent. The owner or operator may establish a higher operating temperature, nitrogen, or oxygen value at a particular well. A higher operating value demonstration shall show supporting data that the elevated parameter does not cause fires or significantly inhibit anaerobic decomposition by killing methanogens.

(1) The nitrogen level shall be determined using Method 3C as described in 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title), unless an alternative test method is established as allowed by section 208.3(b)(2)(i) of this Part.

(2) Unless an alternative test method is established as allowed by section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) of this Part, the oxygen shall be determined by an oxygen meter using Method 3A as described in 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title) except that:

(i) the span shall be set so that the regulatory limit is between 20 and 50 percent of the span;

(ii) a data recorder is not required;

(iii) only two calibration gases are required, a zero and span, and ambient air may be used as the span;

(iv) a calibration error check is not required; and

(v) the allowable sample bias, zero drift, and calibration drift are ±10 percent;

(d) operate the collection system so that the methane concentration is less than 500 parts per million above background at the surface of the landfill. To determine if this level is exceeded, the owner or operator shall conduct surface testing around the perimeter of the collection area along a pattern that traverses the landfill at 30 meter intervals and where visual observations indicate elevated concentrations of landfill gas, such as distressed vegetation and cracks or seeps in the cover. The owner or operator may establish an alternative traversing pattern that ensures equivalent coverage. A surface monitoring design plan shall be developed that includes a topographical map with the monitoring route and the rationale for any site-specific deviations from the 30 meter intervals. Areas with steep slopes or other dangerous areas may be excluded from the surface testing.

(e) operate the system such that all collected gases are vented to a control system designed and operated in compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part. In the event the collection or control system is inoperable, the gas mover system shall be shut down and all valves in the collection and control system contributing to venting of the gas to the atmosphere shall be closed within one hour;

(f) operate the control or treatment system at all times when the collected gas is routed to the system; and

(g) if monitoring demonstrates that the operational requirement in subdivision (b), (c) or (d) of this section are not met, corrective action shall be taken as specified in section 208.6(a)(3) through (5) or (c) of this Part. If corrective actions are taken as specified in section 208.6 of this Part, the monitored exceedance is not a violation of the operational requirements in this Part.

§208.5 Test methods and procedures

(a) (1) The landfill owner or operator shall calculate the NMOC emission rate using either the equation provided in subparagraphs (i) or (ii) of this paragraph. Both equations may be used if the actual year-to- year solid waste acceptance rate is known, as specified in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph, for part of the life of the landfill and the actual year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate is unknown, as specified in subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph, for part of the life of the landfill. The values to be used in both equations are 0.05 per year for k, 170 cubic meters per megagram for Lo, and 4,000 parts per million by volume as hexane for the CNMOC.

(i) The following equation shall be used if the actual year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate is known:

equation to calculate NMOC emission rate based on solid waste acceptance rate

where,

MNMOC = total NMOC emission rate from the landfill, megagrams per year

k = methane generation rate constant, year-1

Lo = methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste

Mi = mass of solid waste in the ith section, megagrams

ti = age of the ith section, years

CNMOC = concentration of NMOC, parts per million by volume as hexane

3.6 x 10-9 = conversion factor

The mass of nondegradable solid waste may be subtracted from the total mass of solid waste in a particular section of the landfill when calculating the value for Mi, if the documentation of the nature and amount of such wastes is maintained.

(ii) The following equation shall be used if the actual year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate is unknown.

MNMOC= 2Lo R (e-kc - e-kt) (CNMOC)(3.6 x 10-9)

where,

MNMOC = mass emission rate of NMOC, megagrams per year

Lo = methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste

R = average annual acceptance rate, megagrams per year

k = methane generation rate constant, year-1

t = age of landfill, years

CNMOC = concentration of NMOC, parts per million by volume as hexane

c = time since closure, years. For active landfill c = 0 and e-kc = 1

3.6 x 10-9 = conversion factor

The mass of nondegradable solid waste may be subtracted from the total mass of solid waste in a particular section of the landfill when calculating the value for R, if the documentation of the nature and amount of such wastes is maintained.

(2) Tier 1. The owner or operator shall compare the calculated NMOC mass emission rate to the standard of 50 megagrams per year.

(i) If the NMOC emission rate calculated in paragraph (1) of this subdivision is less than 50 megagrams per year, then the landfill owner shall submit an emission rate report as provided in section 208.8(b)(1) of this Part, and shall recalculate the NMOC mass emission rate annually as required under section 208.3(b)(1) of this Part.

(ii) If the calculated NMOC emission rate is equal to or greater than 50 megagrams per year, then the landfill owner shall either comply with section 208.3(b)(2) of this Part, or determine a site-specific NMOC concentration and recalculate the NMOC emission rate using the procedures provided in paragraph (3) of this subdivision.

(3) Tier 2. The landfill owner or operator shall determine the NMOC concentration using the following sampling procedure. The landfill owner or operator shall install at least two sample probes per hectare of landfill surface that has retained waste for at least two years. If the landfill is larger than 25 hectares in area, only 50 samples are required. The sample probes should be located to avoid known areas of nondegradable solid waste. The owner or operator shall collect and analyze one sample of landfill gas from each probe to determine the NMOC concentration using Method 25C of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 or Method 18 of appendix A (see section 200.9 of this Title). If using Method 18 of appendix A, the minimum list of compounds to be tested shall be those published in the most recent Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42). If composite sampling is used, equal volumes shall be taken from each sample probe. If more than the required number of samples are taken, all samples shall be used in the analysis. The landfill owner or operator shall divide the NMOC concentration from Method 25C of appendix A by six to convert from CNMOC as carbon to CNMOC as hexane.

(i) The landfill owner or operator shall recalculate the NMOC mass emission rate using the equations provided in subparagraph (1)(i) or (ii) of this subdivision and using the average NMOC concentration from the collected samples instead of the default value in the equation provided in paragraph (1) of this subdivision.

(ii) If the resulting mass emission rate calculated using the site-specific NMOC concentration is equal to or greater than 50 megagrams per year, then the landfill owner or operator shall either comply with section 208.3(b)(2) of this Part, or determine the site-specific methane generation rate constant and recalculate the NMOC emission rate using the site-specific methane generation rate using the procedure specified in paragraph (4) of this subdivision.

(iii) If the resulting NMOC mass emission rate is less than 50 megagrams per year, the owner or operator shall submit a periodic estimate of the emission rate report as provided in section 208.8(b)(1) of this Part and retest the site-specific NMOC concentration every five years using the methods specified in this section.

(4) Tier 3. The site-specific methane generation rate constant shall be determined using the procedures provided in Method 2E of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title). The landfill owner or operator shall estimate the NMOC mass emission rate using equations in subparagraph (a)(1)(i) or (ii) of this subdivision and using a site-specific methane generation rate constant k, and the site-specific NMOC concentration as determined in paragraph (3) of this subdivision instead of the default values provided in paragraph (1) of this subdivision. The landfill owner or operator shall compare the resulting NMOC mass emission rate to the standard of 50 megagrams per year.

(i) If the NMOC mass emission rate as calculated using the site-specific methane generation rate and concentration of NMOC is equal to or greater than 50 megagrams per year, the owner or operator shall comply with section 208.3(b)(2) of this Part.

(ii) If the NMOC mass emission rate is less than 50 megagrams per year, then the owner or operator shall submit a periodic emission rate report as provided in section 208.8(b)(1) of this Part and shall recalculate the NMOC mass emission rate annually, as provided in section 208.8(b)(1) of this Part using the equations in paragraph (1) of this subdivision and using the site-specific methane generation rate constant and NMOC concentration obtained in paragraph (3) of this subdivision. The calculation of the methane generation rate constant is performed only once, and the value obtained from this test shall be used in all subsequent annual NMOC emission rate calculations.

(5) The owner or operator may use other methods to determine the NMOC concentration or a site-specific k as an alternative to the methods required in paragraphs (3) and (4) of this subdivision if the method has been approved by the USEPA.

(b) After the installation of a collection and control system in compliance with section 208.6 of this Part, the owner or operator shall calculate the NMOC emission rate for purposes of determining when the system can be removed as provided in subsection 208.3(b)(2)(v) of this Part, using the following equation:

MNMOC= 1.89 x 10-3 QLFGCNMOC

where,

MNMOC = mass emission rate of NMOC, megagrams per year

QLFG = flow rate of landfill gas, cubic meters per minute

CNMOC = NMOC concentration, parts per million by volume as hexane

(1) The flow rate of landfill gas, QLFG, shall be determined by measuring the total landfill gas flow rate at the common header pipe that leads to the control device using a gas flow measuring device calibrated according to the provisions of section 4 of Method 2E of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title).

(2) The average NMOC concentration, CNMOC, shall be determined by collecting and analyzing landfill gas sampled from the common header pipe before the gas moving or condensate removal equipment using the procedures in Method 25C or Method 18 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title). If using Method 18 of appendix A, the minimum list of compounds to be tested shall be those published in the most recent Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42). The sample location on the common header pipe shall be before any condensate removal or other gas refining units. The landfill owner or operator shall divide the NMOC concentration from Method 25C of appendix A by six to convert from CNMOC as carbon to CNMOC as hexane.

(3) The owner or operator may use another method to determine landfill gas flow rate and NMOC concentration if the method has been approved by the USEPA.

(c) When calculating emissions for PSD purposes, the owner or operator of each MSW landfill subject to the provisions of this section shall estimate the NMOC emission rate for comparison to the PSD major source and significance levels in 40 CFR section 51.166 or 52.21 (see section 200.9 of this Title) using AP-42 or other approved measurement procedures.

(d) For the performance test required in section 208.3(b)(2)(iii)(b) of this Part, Method 25C or Method 18 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title) shall be used to determine compliance with 98 weight-percent efficiency or the 20 ppmv outlet concentration level, unless another method to demonstrate compliance has been approved by the department as provided by section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) of this Part. If using Method 18 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60, the minimum list of compounds to be tested shall be those published in the most recent Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42).

The following equation shall be used to calculate efficiency:

Control Efficiency = (NMOCin - NMOCout ) / (NMOCin )

where,

NMOCin = mass of NMOC entering control device

NMOCout = mass of NMOC exiting control device

§208.6 Compliance provisions

(a) Except as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) of this Part, the specified methods in paragraphs (1) through (6) of this subdivision shall be used to determine whether the gas collection system is in compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(i) of this Part.

(1) For the purposes of calculating the maximum expected gas generation flow rate from the landfill to determine compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(ii)(a)(1) of this Part, one of the following equations shall be used. The k and Lo kinetic factors should be those published in the most recent Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42) or other site specific values demonstrated to be appropriate and approved by the department. If k has been determined as specified in section 208.5(a)(4) of this Part, the value of k determined from the test shall be used. A value of no more than 15 years shall be used for the intended use period of the gas mover equipment. The active life of the landfill is the age of the landfill plus the estimated number of years until closure.

(i) For sites with unknown year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate:

Qm= 2Lo R (e-kc - e-kt)

where,

Qm = maximum expected gas generation flow rate, cubic meters per year

Lo = methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste

R = average annual acceptance rate, megagrams per year

k = methane generation rate constant, year-1

t = age of the landfill at equipment installation plus the time the owner or operator intends to use the gas mover equipment or active life of the landfill, whichever is less. If the equipment is installed after closure, t is the age of the landfill at installation, years

c = time since closure, years (for an active landfill c = 0 and e-kc = 1)

(ii) For sites with known year-to-year solid waste acceptance rate:

equation to calculate maximum expected gas generation flow rate based on solid waste acceptance rate

where,

QM = maximum expected gas generation flow rate, cubic meters per year

k = methane generation rate constant, year-1

Lo = methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste

Mi = mass of solid waste in the ith section, megagrams

ti= age of the ith section, years

(iii) If a collection and control system has been installed, actual flow data may be used to project the maximum expected gas generation flow rate instead of, or in conjunction with, the equations in subparagraph (i) and (ii) of this paragraph. If the landfill is still accepting waste, the actual measured flow data will not equal the maximum expected gas generation rate, so calculations using the equations in subparagraph (i) or (ii) of this paragraph or other methods shall be used to predict the maximum expected gas generation rate over the intended period of use of the gas control system equipment.

(2) For the purposes of determining sufficient density of gas collectors for compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(ii)(a)(2) of this Part, the owner or operator shall design a system of vertical wells, horizontal collectors, or other collection devices, satisfactory to the department, capable of controlling and extracting gas from all portions of the landfill sufficient to meet all operational and performance standards.

(3) For the purpose of demonstrating whether the gas collection system flow rate is sufficient to determine compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(ii)(a)(3) of this Part, the owner or operator shall measure gauge pressure in the gas collection header at each individual well, monthly. If a positive pressure exists, action shall be initiated to correct the exceedance within five calendar days, except for the three conditions allowed under section 208.4(b) of this Part. If negative pressure cannot be achieved without excess air infiltration within 15 calendar days of the first measurement, the gas collection system shall be expanded to correct the exceedance within 120 days of the initial measurement of positive pressure. Any attempted corrective measure shall not cause exceedances of other operational or performance standards. An alternative timeline for correcting the exceedance may be submitted to the department for approval.

(4) Owners or operators are not required to expand the system as required in paragraph (3) of this subdivision during the first 180 days after gas collection system startup.

(5) For the purpose of identifying whether excess air infiltration into the landfill is occurring, the owner or operator shall monitor each well monthly for temperature and nitrogen or oxygen as provided in section 208.4(c) of this Part. If a well exceeds one of these operating parameters, action shall be initiated to correct the exceedance within five calendar days. If correction of the exceedance cannot be achieved within 15 calendar days of the first measurement, the gas collection system shall be expanded to correct the exceedance within 120 days of the initial exceedance. Any attempted corrective measure shall not cause exceedances of other operational or performance standards. An alternative timeline for correcting the exceedance may be submitted to the department for approval.

(6) An owner or operator seeking to demonstrate compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(ii)(a)(4) of this Part through the use of a collection system not conforming to the specifications provided in section 208.10 of this Part, shall provide information satisfactory to the USEPA as specified in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(c) demonstrating that off-site migration is being controlled.

(b) For purposes of compliance with section 208.4(a) of this Part, each owner or operator of a controlled landfill shall place each well or design component as specified in the approved design plan as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i) of this Part. Each well shall be installed no later than 60 days after the date on which the initial solid waste has been in place for a period of:

(1) five years or more if active; or

(2) two years or more if closed or at final grade.

(c) The following procedures shall be used for compliance with the surface methane operational standard as provided in section 208.4(d) of this Part.

(1) After installation of the collection system, the owner or operator shall monitor surface concentrations of methane along the entire perimeter of the collection area and along a pattern that traverses the landfill at 30 meter-intervals (or a site-specific established spacing) for each collection area on a quarterly basis using an organic vapor analyzer, flame ionization detector, or other portable monitor meeting the specifications provided in subdivision (d) of this section.

(2) The background concentration shall be determined by moving the probe inlet upwind and downwind outside the boundary of the landfill at a distance of at least 30 meters from the perimeter wells.

(3) Surface emission monitoring shall be performed in accordance with section 4.3.1 of method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title), except that the probe inlet shall be placed within 5 to 10 centimeters of the ground. Monitoring shall be performed during typical meteorological conditions.

(4) Any reading of 500 parts per million or more above background at any location shall be recorded as a monitored exceedance and the actions specified in subparagraphs (i) through (v) of this paragraph shall be taken. As long as the specified actions are taken, the exceedance is not a violation of the operational requirements of section 208.4(d) of this Part.

(i) The location of each monitored exceedance shall be marked and the location recorded.

(ii) Cover maintenance or adjustments to the vacuum of the adjacent wells to increase the gas collection in the vicinity of each exceedance shall be made and the location shall be re-monitored within 10 calendar days of detecting the exceedance.

(iii) If the remonitoring of the location shows a second exceedance, additional corrective action shall be taken and the location shall be monitored again within 10 days of the second exceedance. If the remonitoring shows a third exceedance for the same location, the action specified in subparagraph (v) of this paragraph shall be taken, and no further monitoring of that location is required until the action specified in subparagraph (v) of this paragraph has been taken.

(iv) Any location that initially showed an exceedance but has a methane concentration less than 500 ppm methane above background at the 10-day remonitoring specified in subparagraph (ii) or (iii) of this paragraph shall be remonitored one month from the initial exceedance. If the one-month remonitoring shows a concentration less than 500 parts per million above background, no further monitoring of that location is required until the next quarterly monitoring period. If the one-month remonitoring shows an exceedance, the actions specified in subparagraph (iii) or (v) of this paragraph shall be taken.

(v) For any location where monitored methane concentration equals or exceeds 500 parts per million above background three times within a quarterly period, a new well or other collection device shall be installed within 120 calendar days of the initial exceedance. An alternative remedy to the exceedance, such as upgrading the blower, header pipes or control device, and a corresponding timeline for installation may be submitted to the department for approval.

(5) The owner or operator shall implement a program to monitor for cover integrity and implement cover repairs as necessary on a monthly basis.

(d) Each owner or operator seeking to comply with the provisions in subdivision(c) of this section shall comply with the following instrumentation specifications and procedures for surface emission monitoring devices:

(1) The portable analyzer shall meet the instrument specifications provided in section 3 of Method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title), except that "methane" shall replace all references to VOC.

(2) The calibration gas shall be methane, diluted to a nominal concentration of 500 parts per million in air.

(3) To meet the performance evaluation requirements in section 3.1.3 of method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60, the instrument evaluation procedures of section 4.4 of method 21 of appendix A shall be used (see section 200.9 of this Title).

(4) The calibration procedures provided in section 4.2 of Method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 (see section 200.9 of this Title) shall be followed immediately before commencing a surface monitoring survey.

(5) The provisions of this section apply at all times, except during periods of start-up, shutdown, or malfunction, provided that the duration of start-up, shutdown, or malfunction shall not exceed five days for collection systems and shall not exceed one hour for treatment or control devices.

§208.7 Monitoring of operations

Except as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) of this Part

(a) each owner or operator seeking to comply with section 208.3(b)(2)(ii)(a) of this Part for an active gas collection system shall install a sampling port and a thermometer, other temperature measuring device, or an access port for temperature measurements at each wellhead and:

(1) measure the gauge pressure in the gas collection header on a monthly basis as provided in section 208.6(a)(3) of this Part;

(2) monitor nitrogen or oxygen concentration in the landfill gas on a monthly basis as provided in section 208.6(a)(5) of this Part; and

(3) monitor temperature of the landfill gas on a monthly basis as provided in section 208.6(a)(5) of this Part;

(b) each owner or operator seeking to comply with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part using an enclosed combustor shall calibrate, maintain, and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications, the following equipment:

(1) a temperature monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder and having a minimum accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being measured expressed in degrees Celsius or ±0.5° C, whichever is greater. A temperature monitoring device is not required for boilers or process heaters with design heat input capacity greater than 44 megawatts;

(2) a device that records flow to or bypass of the control device. The owner or operator shall either:

(i) install, calibrate, and maintain a gas flow rate measuring device that shall record the flow to the control device at least every 15 minutes; or

(ii) secure the bypass line valve in the closed position with a car-seal or a lock-and-key type configuration. A visual inspection of the seal or closure mechanism shall be performed at least once every month to ensure that the valve is maintained in the closed position and that the gas flow is not diverted through the bypass line;

(c) each owner or operator seeking to comply with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part using an open flare shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate according to the manufacturer's specifications the following equipment:

(1) a heat sensing device, such as an ultraviolet beam sensor or thermocouple, at the pilot light or the flame itself to indicate the continuous presence of a flame;

(2) a device that records flow to or bypass of the flare. The owner or operator shall either:

(i) install, calibrate, and maintain a gas flow rate measuring device that shall record the flow to the control device at least every 15 minutes; or

(ii) secure the bypass line valve in the closed position with a car-seal or a lock-and-key type configuration. A visual inspection of the seal or closure mechanism shall be performed at least once every month to ensure that the valve is maintained in the closed position and that the gas flow is not diverted through the bypass line;

(d) each owner or operator seeking to demonstrate compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part using a device other than an open flare or an enclosed combustor shall provide information satisfactory to the USEPA as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(a) of this Part describing the operation of the control device, the operating parameters that would indicate proper performance, and appropriate monitoring procedures. The USEPA shall review the information and either approve it, or request that additional information be submitted. The USEPA may specify additional appropriate monitoring procedures;

(e) each owner or operator seeking to install a collection system that does not meet the specifications in section 208.10 of this Part or seeking to monitor alternative parameters to those required by sections 208.4 through 208.7 of this Part shall provide information satisfactory to the USEPA as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) and (c) of this Part describing the design and operation of the collection system, the operating parameters that would indicate proper performance, and appropriate monitoring procedures. The USEPA may specify additional appropriate monitoring procedures;

(f) each owner or operator seeking to demonstrate compliance with section 208.6(c) of this Part, shall monitor surface concentrations of methane according to the instrument specifications and procedures provided in section 208.6(d) of this Part. Any closed landfill that has no monitored exceedances of the operational standard in three consecutive quarterly monitoring periods may skip to annual monitoring. Any methane reading of 500 ppm or more above background detected during the annual monitoring returns the monitoring frequency for that landfill to quarterly monitoring.

§208.8 Reporting requirements

(a) each owner or operator subject to the requirements of this section shall submit an initial design capacity report to the department;

(1) the initial design capacity report shall be submitted no later than 90 days after the effective date of this section or 90 days after construction or reconstruction commences, whichever is later;

(2) the initial design capacity report shall contain the following information:

(i) a drawing of the landfill, providing the size and location of the landfill, and identifying all areas where solid waste is authorized to be landfilled; and

(ii) the maximum design capacity of the landfill. Where the maximum design capacity is specified in the permit to construct and operate, a copy of the permit specifying the maximum design capacity may be submitted as part of the report. If the maximum design capacity of the landfill is not specified in the permit, the maximum design capacity shall be calculated using good engineering practices. The calculations shall be provided, along with the relevant parameters as part of the report. The department may request other reasonable information as may be necessary to verify the maximum design capacity of the landfill;

(3) an amended design capacity report shall be submitted to the department providing notification of an increase in the design capacity of the landfill, within 90 days of an increase in the maximum design capacity of the landfill to or above 2.5 million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters. This increase in design capacity may result from an increase in the permitted volume of the landfill or an increase in the density as documented in the annual recalculation required in section 208.9(f) of this Part;

(b) each owner or operator subject to the requirements of this Part shall submit an NMOC emission rate report to the department initially and annually thereafter, except as provided for in subparagraph (1)(ii) or paragraph (3) of this subdivision. The department may request such additional information as may be necessary to verify the reported NMOC emission rate;

(1) the NMOC emission rate report shall contain an annual or five-year estimate of the NMOC emission rate calculated using the formula and procedures provided in section 208 5(a) or (b) of this Part, as applicable;

(i) the initial NMOC emission rate report may be combined with the initial design capacity report required in subdivision (a) of this paragraph and shall be submitted no later than indicated in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Subsequent NMOC emission rate reports shall be submitted annually thereafter, except as provided for in subparagraph (1)(ii) and paragraph (3) of this subdivision; and

(ii) if the estimated NMOC emission rate as reported in the annual report to the department is less than 50 megagrams per year in each of the next five consecutive years, the owner or operator may elect to submit an estimate of the NMOC emission rate for the next five-year period in lieu of the annual report. This estimate shall include the current amount of solid waste-in-place and the estimated waste acceptance rate for each year of the five years for which an NMOC emission rate is estimated. All data and calculations upon which this estimate is based shall be provided to the department. This estimate shall be revised at least once every five years. If the actual waste acceptance rate exceeds the estimated waste acceptance rate in any year reported in the five-year estimate, a revised five-year estimate shall be submitted to the department. The revised estimate shall cover the five-year period beginning with the year in which the actual waste acceptance rate exceeded the estimated waste acceptance rate;

(2) the NMOC emission rate report shall include all the data, calculations, sample reports and measurements used to estimate the annual or five-year emissions; and

(3) each owner or operator subject to the requirements of this Part is exempted from the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subdivision, after the installation of a collection and control system in compliance with section 208.3(b)(2) of this Part, during such time as the collection and control system is in operation and in compliance with sections 208.4 and 208.6 of this Part;

(c) each owner or operator subject to the provisions of section 208.3(b)(2)(i) of this Part shall submit a collection and control system design plan to the department within one year of the first report, required under subdivision (b) of this section, in which the emission rate exceeds 50 megagrams per year, except as follows:

(1) if the owner or operator elects to recalculate the NMOC emission rate after Tier 2 NMOC sampling and analysis as provided in section 208.5(a)(3) of this Part and the resulting rate is less than 50 megagrams per year, annual periodic reporting shall be resumed, using the tier 2 determined site-specific NMOC concentration, until the calculated emission rate is equal to or greater than 50 megagrams per year or the landfill is closed. The revised NMOC emission rate report, with the recalculated emission rate based on NMOC sampling and analysis, shall be submitted within 180 days of the first calculated exceedance of 50 megagrams per year;

(2) if the owner or operator elects to recalculate the NMOC emission rate after determining a site-specific methane generation rate constant k, as provided in tier 3 in section 208.5(a)(4) of this Part, and the resulting NMOC emission rate is less than 50 megagrams per year, annual periodic reporting shall be resumed. The resulting site-specific methane generation rate constant k shall be used in the emission rate calculation until such time as the emissions rate calculation results in an exceedance. The revised NMOC emission rate report based on the provisions of section 208.5(a)(4) of this Part and the resulting site-specific methane generation rate constant k shall be submitted to the department within one year of the first calculated emission rate exceeding 50 megagrams per year;

(d) each owner or operator of a controlled landfill shall submit a final closure plan to the department pursuant to the requirements of section 360-2.15(c) of this Title. No additional wastes may be placed into the landfill without filing a notification of modification as described under 40 CFR section 60.7(a)(4) (see section 200.9 of this Title) and obtaining department approval pursuant to this Part;

(e) each owner or operator of a controlled landfill shall submit an equipment removal report to the department 30 days prior to removal or cessation of operation of the control equipment;

(1) the equipment removal report shall contain all of the following items:

(i) a copy of the final closure plan submitted in accordance with subdivision (d) of this section;

(ii) a copy of the initial performance test report demonstrating that the 15 year minimum control period has expired; and

(iii) dated copies of three successive NMOC emission rate reports demonstrating that the landfill is no longer producing 50 megagrams or greater of NMOC per year;

(2) the department may request such additional information as may be necessary to verify that all of the conditions for removal in section 208.3(b)(2)(v) of this Part have been met;

(f) each owner or operator of a landfill seeking to comply with section 208.3(b)(2) of this Part using an active collection system designed in accordance with section 208.3(b)(2)(ii) of this Part shall submit to the department annual reports of the recorded information in paragraphs (1) through (6) of this subdivision. The initial annual report shall be submitted within 180 days of installation and start-up of the collection and control system, and shall include the initial performance test report required under 40 CFR 60.8 (see section 200.9 of this Title). For enclosed combustion devices and flares, reportable exceedances are defined under section 208.9(c) of this Part:

(1) value and length of time for exceedance of applicable parameters monitored under section 208.7(a), (b),(c) and (d) of this Part;

(2) description and duration of all periods when the gas stream is diverted from the control device through a bypass line or the indication of bypass flow as specified under section 208.7 of this Part;

(3) description and duration of all periods when the control device was not operating for a period exceeding one hour and length of time the control device was not operating;

(4) all periods when the collection system was not operating in excess of five days;

(5) the location of each exceedance of the 500 parts per million methane concentration as provided in section 208.4(c) of this Part and the concentration recorded at each location for which an exceedance was recorded in the previous month; and

(6) the date of installation and the location of each well or collection system expansion added pursuant to section 208.6(a)(3), (b), and (c)(4) of this Part;

(g) each owner or operator seeking to comply with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part shall include the following information with the initial performance test report required under 40 CFR 60.8 (see section 200.9 of this Title):

(1) a diagram of the collection system showing collection system positioning including all wells, horizontal collectors, surface collectors, or other gas extraction devices, including the locations of any areas excluded from collection and the proposed sites for the future collection system expansion;

(2) the data upon which the sufficient density of wells, horizontal collectors, surface collectors, or other gas extraction devices and the gas mover equipment sizing are based;

(3) the documentation of the presence of asbestos or nondegradable material for each area from which collection wells have been excluded based on the presence of asbestos or nondegradable material;

(4) the sum of the gas generation flow rates for all areas from which collection wells have been excluded based on nonproductivity and the calculations of gas generation flow rate for each excluded area;

(5) the provisions for increasing gas mover equipment capacity with increased gas generation flow rate, if the present gas mover equipment is inadequate to move the maximum flow rate expected over the life of the landfill; and

(6) the provisions for the control of off-site migration.

§208.9 Recordkeeping requirements

(a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill subject to the provisions of section 208.3(b) of this Part shall keep for at least seven years up-to-date, readily accessible, on-site records of the design capacity report which triggered section 208.3(b), the current amount of solid waste in-place, and the year-by-year waste acceptance rate.

(b) Except as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) of this Part, each owner or operator of a controlled landfill shall keep up-to-date, readily accessible records for the life of the control equipment of the data listed in paragraphs (1) through (4) of this subdivision as measured during the initial performance test or compliance determination. Records of subsequent tests or monitoring shall be maintained for a minimum of seven years. Records of the control device vendor specifications shall be maintained until removal.

(1) Where an owner or operator subject to the provisions of this Part seeks to demonstrate compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(ii) of this Part:

(i) the maximum expected gas generation flow rate as calculated in section 208.6(a)(1) of this Part. The owner or operator may use another method to determine the maximum gas generation flow rate, if the method has been approved by the department; and

(ii) the density of wells, horizontal collectors, surface collectors, or other gas extraction devices determined using the procedures specified in section 208.10(a)(1) of this Part.

(2) Where an owner or operator subject to the provisions of this Part seeks to demonstrate compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part through use of an enclosed combustion device other than a boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity greater than 44 megawatts:

(i) the average combustion temperature measured at least every 15 minutes and averaged over the same time period of the performance test; and

(ii) the percent reduction of NMOC determined as specified in section 208.3(b)(2)(iii)(b) of this Part achieved by the control device.

(3) Where an owner or operator subject to the provisions of this Part seeks to demonstrate compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii)(b)(1) of this Part through use of a boiler or process heater of any size: a description of the location at which the collected gas vent stream is introduced into the boiler or process heater over the same time period of the performance testing.

(4) Where an owner or operator subject to the provisions of this Part seeks to demonstrate compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii)(a) of this Part through use of an open flare, the flare type (i.e., steam-assisted, air-assisted, or nonassisted), all visible emission readings, heat content determination, flow rate or bypass flow rate measurements, and exit velocity determinations made during the performance test as specified in 40 CFR 60.18 (see section 200.9 of this Title); continuous records of the flare pilot flame or flare flame monitoring; and records of all periods of operations during which the pilot flame of the flare flame is absent.

(c) Except as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) of this Part, each owner or operator of a controlled landfill subject to the provisions of this Part shall keep for seven years up-to-date, readily accessible continuous records of the equipment operating parameters specified to be monitored in section 208.7 of this section as well as up-to-date, readily accessible records for periods of operation during which the parameter boundaries established during the most recent performance test are exceeded.

(1) The following constitute exceedances that shall be recorded and reported under section 208.8(f) of this Part:

(i) for enclosed combustors except for boilers and process heaters with design heat input capacity of 44 megawatts (150 million British thermal unit per hour) or greater, all three-hour periods of operation during which the average combustion temperature was more than 28° C below the average combustion temperature during the most recent performance test at which compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part was determined;

(ii) for boilers or process heaters, whenever there is a change in the location at which the vent stream is introduced into the flame zone as required under paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(2) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this section shall keep up-to-date, readily accessible continuous records of the indication of flow to the control device or the indication of bypass flow or records of monthly inspections of car-seals or lock-and-key configurations used to seal bypass lines, specified under section 208.7 of this Part.

(3) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this Part who uses a boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity of 44 megawatts or greater to comply with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part shall keep an up-to-date, readily accessible record of all periods of operation of the boiler or process heater.

(4) Each owner or operator seeking to comply with the provisions of this Part by use of an open flare shall keep up-to-date, readily accessible continuous records of the flame or flare pilot flame monitoring specified under section 208.7(c) of this Part, and up-to-date, readily accessible records of all periods of operation in which the flame or flare pilot flame is absent.

(d) Except as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) of this Part, each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this Part shall keep for the life of the collection system an up-to-date, readily accessible plot map showing each existing and planned collector in the system and providing a unique identification location label for each collector.

(1) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this Part shall keep up-to-date, readily accessible records of the installation date and location of all newly installed collectors as specified under section 208.6(b) of this Part.

(2) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this Part shall keep readily accessible documentation of the nature, date of deposition, amount, and location of asbestos-containing or nondegradable waste excluded from collection as provided in section 208.10(a)(3)(i) of this Part as well as any nonproductive areas excluded from collection as provided in section 208.10(a)(3)(ii) of this Part.

(e) Except as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(b) of this Part, each owner or operator subject to the provisions of this section shall keep for at least seven years up-to-date, readily accessible records of all collection and control system exceedances of the operational standards in section 208.4 of this Part, the reading in the subsequent month whether or not the second reading is an exceedance, and the location of each exceedance.

(f) Landfill owners or operators who convert design capacity from volume to mass or mass to volume to demonstrate that landfill design capacity is less than 2.5 million megagrams or 2.5 million cubic meters, as provided in the definition of design capacity, shall keep readily accessible, on-site records of the annual recalculation of site-specific density, design capacity, and the supporting documentation. Off-site records may be maintained if they are retrievable within four hours. Either paper copy or electronic formats are acceptable.

§208.10 Specifications for active collection systems

(a) Each owner or operator seeking to comply with section 208.3(b)(2)(i) of this Part shall site active collection wells, horizontal collectors, surface collectors, or other extraction devices at a sufficient density throughout all gas producing areas using the following procedures unless alternative procedures have been approved by the USEPA as provided in section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(c) and (d) of this Part:

(1) The collection devices within the interior and along the perimeter areas shall be certified to achieve comprehensive control of surface gas emissions by a professional engineer. The following issues shall be addressed in the design: depths of refuse, refuse gas generation rates and flow characteristics, cover properties, gas system expendability, leachate and condensate management, accessibility, compatibility with filling operations, integration with closure end use, air intrusion control, corrosion resistance, fill settlement, and resistance to the refuse decomposition heat.

(2) The sufficient density of gas collection devices determined in paragraph (1) of this subdivision shall address landfill gas migration issues and augmentation of the collection system through the use of active or passive systems at the landfill perimeter or exterior.

(3) The placement of gas collection devices determined in paragraph (1) of this subdivision shall control all gas producing areas, except as provided by subparagraphs (i) and (ii) of this paragraph.

(i) Any segregated area of asbestos or nondegradable material may be excluded from collection if documented as provided under section 208.9(d) of this Part. The documentation shall provide the nature, date of deposition, location and amount of asbestos or nondegradable material deposited in the area, and shall be provided to the department upon request.

(ii) Any nonproductive area of the landfill may be excluded from control, provided that the total of all excluded areas can be shown to contribute less than one percent of the total amount of NMOC emissions from the landfill. The amount, location, and age of the material shall be documented and provided to the department upon request. A separate NMOC emissions estimate shall be made for each section proposed for exclusion, and the sum of all such sections shall be compared to the NMOC emissions estimate for the entire landfill. Emissions from each section shall be computed using the following equation:

Qi= 2 k Lo Mi (e-kti) CNMOC (3.6 x 10 -9)

where,

Qi = NMOC emission rate from the i th section, megagrams per year

k = methane generation rate constant, year -1

Lo = methane generation potential, cubic meters per megagram solid waste

Mi = mass of the degradable solid waste in the ith section, megagram

ti = age of the solid waste in the i th section, years

CNMOC = concentration of nonmethane organic compounds, parts per million by volume

3.6 x 10-9 = conversion factor

(iii) The values for k and CNMOC, determined in field testing shall be used, if field testing has been performed in determining the NMOC emission rate or the radii of influence (the distance from the well center to a point in the landfill where the pressure gradient applied by the blower or compressor approaches zero). If field testing has not been performed, the default values for k, Lo and CNMOC provided in section 208.5(a)(1)(i) of this Part or the alternative values from section 208.5(a)(5) of this Part shall be used. The mass of nondegradable solid waste contained within the given section may be subtracted from the total mass of the section when estimating emissions provided the nature, location, age, and amount of the nondegradable material is documented as provided in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph.

(b) Each owner or operator seeking to comply with section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(a) of this Part shall construct the gas collection devices using the following equipment or procedures:

(1) the landfill gas extraction components shall be constructed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe, fiberglass, stainless steel, or other nonporous corrosion resistant material of suitable dimensions to: convey projected amounts of gases; withstand installation, static, and settlement forces; and withstand planned overburden or traffic loads. The collection system shall extend as necessary to comply with emission and migration standards. Collection devices such as wells and horizontal collectors shall be perforated to allow gas entry without head loss sufficient to impair performance across the intended extent of control. Perforations shall be situated with regard to the need to prevent excessive air infiltration;

(2) vertical wells shall be placed so as not to endanger underlying liners and shall address the occurrence of water within the landfill. Holes and trenches constructed for piped wells and horizontal collectors shall be of sufficient cross-section so as to allow for their proper construction and completion including, for example, centering of pipes and placement of gravel backfill. Collection devices shall be designed so as not to allow indirect short circuiting of air into the cover or refuse into the collection system or gas into the air. Any gravel used around pipe perforations should be of a dimension so as not to penetrate or block perforations;

(3) collection devices may be connected to the collection header pipes below or above the landfill surface. The connector assembly shall include a positive closing throttle valve, any necessary seals and couplings, access couplings and at least one sampling port. The collection devices shall be constructed of PVC, HDPE, fiberglass, stainless steel, or other nonporous material of suitable thickness.

(c) Each owner or operator seeking to comply with section 208.3(b)(2)(i)(a) of this Part shall convey the landfill gas to a control system in compliance with section 208.3(b)(2)(iii) of this Part through the collection header pipe(s). The gas mover equipment shall be sized to handle the maximum gas generation flow rate expected over the intended use period of the gas moving equipment using the following procedures:

(1) for existing collection systems, the flow data shall be used to project the maximum flow rate. If no flow data exists, the procedures in paragraph (2) of this subdivision shall be used; and

(2) for new collection systems, the maximum flow rate shall be in accordance with section 208.6(a)(1) of this Part.