Controlling Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles
Motor vehicles are significant sources of pollution that can damage the environment and pose public health issues. Everyone has a stake in limiting pollution.
How Vehicle Pollution Harms the Environment and Health
Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons are released when fuel is burned in an internal combustion engine and when air/fuel residuals are emitted through the vehicle tailpipe. Gasoline vapors also escape into the atmosphere during refueling and when fuel vaporizes from engines and fuel systems caused by vehicle operation or hot weather.
The pollutants in vehicle emissions are known to damage lung tissue, and can lead to and aggravate respiratory diseases, such as asthma. Motor vehicle pollution also contributes to the formation of acid rain and adds to the greenhouse gases that cause climate change.
Pollutants emitted directly from vehicles are not the only cause for concern. On warm, sunny days, hydrocarbons react with oxides of nitrogen to create a secondary pollutant, ozone. In many urban areas, motor vehicles are the single largest contributor to ground-level ozone which is a common component of smog. Ozone causes coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath, and can bring on permanent lung damage, making it a cause of crucial public health problems.
Zero-emission vehicles include battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel-cell-electric vehicles. These technologies can be used in passenger cars, trucks and transit buses.
New York and seven other states joined together in an initiative to put 3.3 million zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2025. A Memorandum of Understanding (PDF) outlines the steps these states will take to expand consumer awareness and demand for zero-emission vehicles.
Reducing Vehicle Pollution
Proper maintenance of car and truck emission control systems not only limits harmful emissions, but also can improve fuel efficiency and vehicle performance extending the life of the vehicle. Care in storing and handling gasoline and other solvents also reduces evaporative losses to the atmosphere.
New York's motor vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) programs are administered by the New York State Departments of Environmental Conservation and Motor Vehicles. I/M programs require annual emissions inspections and, when necessary, require repair of faulty emission systems. The New York Vehicle Inspection Program is an important component of New York's State Implementation Plan to meet the national ambient air quality standard for ozone.
More about Controlling Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles:
- Part 218 Discretionary Enforcement Letter - This discretionary enforcement letter has been issued with respect to certain provisions of 6 NYCRR Part 218 concerning aftermarket catalytic converters.
- Fact Sheet Prohibition of Used Catalytic Converters/New Aftermarket Catalytic Converter Standards - The Department adopted California's catalytic converter requirements: a) the prohibition of installing used catalytic converters; and b) standards for new aftermarket converters.
- Fact Sheet for Alternative Fuel System Conversions - New on-road motor vehicles subject to Part 218 must be certified to either California emission standards or "50 State" vehicle emission standards when offered for sale within NYS.
- Fact Sheet for New Vehicle Sales - The Department implemented Part 218 which applies to new on-road motor vehicles delivered for sale in New York State. A new motor vehicle is defined by regulation as having less than 7,500 miles.
- Part 248 Discretionary Enforcement Letter - This discretionary enforcement letter has been issued due to recent changes in Chapter 57, Laws of 2015.
- Diesel Engine Impact on Air Quality - Diesel engines are durable and efficient. They consume diesel fuel, a complicated mix of petroleum components, and, therefore, some pollutants are produced.
- Heavy Duty Vehicle Idling Laws - NYS Environmental Conservation Law prohibits heavy-duty vehicles, including diesel trucks and buses, from idling for more than five minutes at a time.
- Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicle Inspection/Maintenance Program - The Department has developed regulations to implement an emissions inspection and maintenance I/M program for on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs).
- Heavy Duty Inspection/Maintenance Program DEC Approved Smokemeters - The Department has approved for use these smoke meters or opacity meters
- Fuel Programs - New York State is legally obligated to regulate fuels under US EPA guidelines
- Low and Zero Emission Vehicles - NYS' LEV program is modeled after the California CAL-LEV program
- Motor Vehicle Pollution Fact Sheet - In many urban areas, motor vehicles are the single largest contributor to ozone, a major component of smog.
- Vehicles Pollute Tip Sheet - facts and helpful tips on reducing vehicle pollution
- Air Resources Research Summaries - Air Resources research papers for technical audiences