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Network Plan Part 1 - Introduction, Chronology, Monitoring Sites

2014 Annual Monitoring Network Plan

New York State Ambient Air Monitoring Program
Bureau of Air Quality Surveillance
Division of Air Resources
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation

Table of Contents
Section Title Web Page
1. Introduction Part 1
1.1 Background Part 1
1.2 Topography and Climate of New York State Part 1
1.3 Population and Demographics Part 1
2. Chronology of Air Monitoring in New York State Part 1
2.1 Monitoring Related Research and Investigations Part 1
2.1.1 Publications Part 1
2.1.2 Posters/Presentations Part 1
3. Monitoring Sites Part 1
3.1 Northern Monitoring Site Listings (alphabetical): Albany Co. Health Dept - East Syracuse Part 2
Fulton - Newburgh Part 3
Nick's Lake - Piseco Lake Part 4
Rochester - Tonawanda II Part 5
Utica - Williamson Part 6
3.2 Southern Monitoring Site Listings (alphabetical): Babylon - Fresh Kills West Part 7
Holtsville - IS 74 Part 8
JHS 126 - JHS 45 Part 9
Maspeth Library - Port Richmond Part 10
PS 19 - PS 314 Part 11
Queens College - White Plains Part 12
4. Criteria Contaminants Part 13
4.1 Carbon Monoxide Part 13
4.2 Nitrogen Dioxide Part 13
4.3 Lead Part 13
4.4 Particulate Matter Part 13
4.4.1 Total Suspended Particulate Part 13
4.4.2 PM10 Part 13
4.4.3 PM2.5 Part 13
4.4.4 Continuous PM Monitoring Part 13
4.4.5 Speciation Part 13
4.4.6 Continuous Speciation Part 13
4.4.7 Additional Monitoring Initiatives Part 13
4.4.7.1 PM2.5 Technology Assessment and Characterization Study-New York Supersite Part 13
4.4.7.2 Organic Carbon: Molecular Marker Characterization Part 13
4.4.7.3 PM Coarse Monitoring Part 13
4.4.8 Air Pollution and Environmental Conditions Part 13
4.4.8.1 NYC Micro-scale Street Canyon Monitoring Part 13
4.4.8.2 Rochester PM Center Clarkson, Univ. of Rochester Medical Center Part 13
4.4.8.3 Air Pollution Microscopy Part 13
4.4.8.4 Ultrafine Particulate Monitoring Part 13
4.5 Sulfur Dioxide Part 13
4.6 Ozone Part 13
5. EPA's National Toxics Program Part 14
5.1 National Air Toxics Trends Stations (NATTS) Part 14
5.2 NY Toxics Monitoring Network Part 14
5.3 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Part 14
6. NCore Sites Part 15
7. Acid Deposition Network Part 15
8. Anticipated Changes in the Next 18 Months Part 15
8.1 Lead Monitoring Part 15
8.2 Special Purpose Monitors Part 15
8.2.1 Tonawanda Community Air Quality Study Part 15
8.2.2 New York State Ambient Mercury Baseline Study Part 15
8.2.3 Community Air Screen Part 15
8.2.4 Airport Lead Monitoring Part 15
8.2.5 Peace Bridge Air Quality Study Part 15
8.3 Proposed Changes at Existing Sites Part 15
8.3.1 Division St. and Buffalo Part 15
List of Tables
Table Description Web Page
1.1 2010 Census Population for Major Metropolitan Statistical Areas in New York Part 1
3.1 Location Listing for Northern Monitoring Sites Part 2
3.2 Location Listing for Southern Monitoring Sites Part 7
4.1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards Part 13
4.2 CBSAs in NYS Required to have Near-Road NO2 Monitors Part 13
4.3 Buffalo Near-Road Site Characteristics Part 13
4.4 FEM Data Availability in New York (2013 Data) Part 13
4.5 FEM Data Comparison with Collocation FRM (2013 Data) Part 13
5.1 NATTS Pollutants of Concern Part 14
5.2 Target List of Volatile Organic Compounds Part 14
5.3 Information on PAMS Sites Part 14
5.4 Instrumentation for Gaseous Pollutants Part 14
5.5 Equipment for Meteorological Measurements Part 14
5.6 Target Compound List for Carbonyl Sampling Part 14
5.7 VOC Methods and Sampling Frequencies Part 14
5.8 PAMS Target Compounds List Part 14
8.1 2013 PM10 3-Month Rolling Average Lead Concentrations for Urban Sites Part 15
8.2 Airport Lead Concentrations, µg/m3 Part 15
List of Figures
Figure Title Web Page
1.1 Population Density in New York State by County Part 1
1.2 Potential Environmental Justice Areas in New York State Part 1
2.1 Location Map of Ambient Air Monitoring Sites in New York State, Excluding NYC Part 1
2.2 Location Map of Ambient Air Monitoring Sites in NYC Part 1
3.1 Site Locations for Northern Monitoring Operation Part 1
3.2 Site Locations for Southern Monitoring Operation Part 1
4.1 Carbon Monoxide Monitors and Concentration Trends Part 13
4.2 Location Map for Carbon Monoxide Monitoring Sites Part 13
4.3 Nitrogen Dioxide Monitors and Concentration Trends Part 13
4.4 Location Map for Nitrogen Oxides Monitoring Sites Part 13
4.5 Lead Monitors and Concentration Trends Part 13
4.6 Total Suspended Particulate Monitors and Concentration Trends Part 13
4.7 PM10 Monitors and Concentration Trends Part 13
4.8 Location Map of Manual PM10 Monitoring Sites Part 13
4.9 Location Map of Manual PM2.5 Monitoring Sites Part 13
4.10 PM2.5 Monitors and Concentration Trends Part 13
4.11 Location Map of Continuous PM2.5 (TEOM) Monitoring Sites Part 13
4.12 Queens College 1405DF FEM vs. Daily FRM Part 13
4.13 EPA FEM Test Criteria for slope, intercept and correlation coefficient Part 13
4.14 Location Map of Speciation Sampling Sites Part 13
4.15 Sulfur Dioxide Monitors and Concentration Trends Part 13
4.16 Location Map for Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Sites Part 13
4.17 Ozone Monitors and 1 hr Concentration Trends Part 13
4.18 Ozone Monitors and 8 hr Concentration Trends Part 13
4.19 Location Map for Ozone Monitoring Sites Part 13
5.1 Annual Averages for Benzene Part 14
5.2 Annual Averages for Toluene Part 14
5.3 Annual Averages for m,p-Xylene Part 14
5.4 Annual Averages for o-Xylene Part 14
5.5 Annual Averages for 1,3-Butadiene Part 14
5.6 Annual Averages for Dichloromethane Part 14
5.7 Annual Averages for Chloroform Part 14
5.8 Annual Averages for 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Part 14
5.9 Annual Averages for Formaldehyde Part 14
5.10 Annual Averages for Acetaldehyde Part 14
5.11 Location Map of Toxics Monitoring Sites Part 14
7.1 Location Map of Acid Deposition Monitoring Sites Part 15
8.1 Annual Averages for Benzene at Tonawanda Sites Part 15
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
Abbreviation Description
AADT Annual Average Daily Traffic
AIRS Aerometric Information Retrieval System
AQI Air Quality Index
AQS Air Quality System
AMoN Ammonia Gas Monitoring Network
ARM Approved Regional Method
ASRC Atmospheric Sciences Research Center
BAQS Bureau of Air Quality Surveillance
CAMR Clean Air Mercury Rule
CASTNet Clean Air Status and Trends Network
CBSA Core-Based Statistical Area
CCNY City College of New York
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CMSA Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area
CO Carbon Monoxide
Cr Chromium
CSN Chemical Speciation Network
CTDEP Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
DNPH 2,4-Dinitrophenyl hydrazine
EAC Early Action Compact
EC Elemental Carbon
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
FEM Federal Equivalent Method
FRM Federal Reference Method
GC Gas Chromatography
GCMS Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
HAPs Hazardous Air Pollutants
HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography
ICP-MS Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
IMPROVE Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments
MDN Mercury Deposition Network
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NATTS National Air Toxics Trends Stations
NCore National Core
NESCAUM New England States Coordinated Air Use Management
NJDEP New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
NO Nitric oxide
NO2 Nitrogen dioxide
NOx Nitrogen oxides
NOy Sum of reactive nitrogen oxides
NSR New Source Review
NYC New York City
NYCRR New York State Codes, Rules and Regulations
NYSERDA New York State Energy Research and Development Authority
O3 Ozone
OC Organic Carbon
ORD Office of Research and Development (EPA)
PAHs Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
PAMS Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations
Pb Lead
PM Particulate Matter
PM10 Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less
PM2.5 Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less
PMTACS PM2.5 Technology Assessment and Characterization Study
ppb Parts per billion
ppm Parts per million
PUF Polyurethane Foam
PWEI Population Weighted Emissions Index
SADCA State Acid Deposition Control Act
SIP State Implementation Plan
SLAMS State and Local Air Monitoring Stations
SO2 Sulfur dioxide
SOAP Speciation of Organics for Apportionment of PM2.5
SOx Sulfur oxides
SPM Special Purpose Monitors
SUNY State University of New York
TEOM Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance
TSP Total Suspended Particulate
UV Ultra Violet
VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds

1. Introduction

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized amendments to the ambient air monitoring regulations on October 17, 2006. The amendments revise the technical requirements for certain types of sites, add provisions for monitoring of PM10-2.5, and reduce certain monitoring requirements for criteria pollutants. Monitoring agencies are required to submit annual monitoring network plans, conduct network assessments every 5 years, perform quality assurance activities, and, in certain instances, establish NCore sites by January 1, 2011.

Starting in July 2007, each State, or where applicable local, agency is required to "adopt and submit to the Regional Administrator an annual monitoring network plan which shall provide for the establishment and maintenance of an air quality surveillance system that consists of a network of SLAMS monitoring stations including FRM, FEM, and ARM monitors that are part of SLAMS, NCore stations, CSN stations, State speciation stations, SPM stations, and/or, in serious, severe and extreme ozone nonattainment areas, PAMS stations, and SPM monitoring stations." This document is prepared and submitted as part of the fulfillment to these requirements.

1.1 Background

New York State began a concerted effort to control the air pollution problem back in 1957, when the State Legislature enacted one of the nation's first comprehensive air pollution control laws. An Air Pollution Control Board was established to develop and direct a public information program for monitoring contaminant levels, and to conduct area studies and inventories outlining major problems. In December 1964, New York State developed air quality standards to protect its citizens against adverse health effects. These standards provided a long-range planning tool and established numerical air quality limits for the following contaminants: particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxidants, hydrogen sulfide, fluoride, beryllium and sulfuric acid mist.

In 1966 the Legislature responded to the increasing pollution levels by restructuring the administrative authority into the Department of Health, under which the Division of Air Resources was created. Major legislation was also introduced to provide increased efficacy of rules and regulations. That year also marked the severe New York City Thanksgiving holiday air pollution episode brought upon by a temperature inversion that lasted through the weekend.

By the time when the first Earth Day was held in 1970, it had become apparent that pollution abatement strategies in place were inadequate, and air quality-along with water quality and solid waste-became cornerstones of the emerging U.S. environmental conscience. The 1970 Clean Air Act Extension, and the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in that same year, were defining moments in the history of air quality in this country.

Another development which has had a major effect on air pollution control in New York State was the creation of the Department of Environmental Conservation in 1970. The Division of Air Resources was transferred to the new Department and its administrative functions restructured and streamlined. Nine new regional offices were established to carry out responsibilities relating to pollution control of sources within their respective part of the State.

In 1977, the first set of Clean Air Act amendments was adopted because many states failed to meet mandated targets. One of the most effective of these was the New Source Review (NSR), which addresses older facilities that had been "grandfathered" by the original law. In 1990, additional amendments to the Clean Air Act included provisions for attainment and maintenance of national ambient air quality standards, mobile sources, air toxics, acid deposition control, permits, stratospheric ozone and global climate protection, enforcement; visibility improvement near National Parks, and other provisions relating to research, development and air monitoring.

In 1997, EPA announced more strict national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone, the primary constituent of smog. After a lengthy scientific review process, including extensive external scientific review, EPA determined that these changes were necessary to protect public health and the environment. The new standard was intended to be more protective of the health of children and adults who play and work outdoors in the summer. In establishing the 8-hour standard, EPA set the standard at 0.08 parts per million (ppm) as an average over an 8-hour period and defines the new standard as a "concentration-based" form, specifically the 3-year average of the annual 4th-highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone concentrations. EPA also added new standards, using PM2.5 as the indicator for fine particles (with PM2.5 referring to particles with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm), and retained PM10 standards for the purpose of regulating the coarse fraction of PM10 (referred to as thoracic coarse particles or coarse-fraction particles, generally including particles with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter greater than 2.5 µm and less than or equal to 10 µm, or PM10-2.5). EPA established two new PM2.5 standards: an annual standard of 15 µg/m3 based on the 3-year average of annual arithmetic mean PM2.5 concentrations from single or multiple community-oriented monitors; and a 24-hour standard of 65 µg/m3, based on the 3-year average of the 98th percentile of 24-hour PM2.5 concentrations at each population-oriented monitor within an area. These new standards were challenged by industry and in May of 1999 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit Court ruled that U.S. EPA must reconsider the new 8-hr ozone and fine particulate standards. The court did not throw out the standards, but ruled that U.S. EPA could not enforce them. On February 27, 2001, the Supreme Court substantially reversed the ruling of the lower court. The Supreme Court remanded the case to the Court of Appeals for resolution of any remaining issues that had not been addressed in that court's earlier rulings. In March 2002, the Court of Appeals rejected all remaining challenges to the standards.

In December 2006, EPA issued the final rule revising the NAAQS for PM to provide increased protection of public health and welfare, respectively. EPA revised the level of the 24-hour PM2.5 standard to 35 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) and retained the level of the annual PM2.5 standard at 15µg/m3. With regard to PM10, the 24-hour standard was retained, but the annual PM10 standard was revoked.

The current 8-hr ozone standard of 0.075 ppm, effective since May 27, 2008 is under reconsideration and will most certainly be revised to a lower value. The final rule is expected this August.

In November 2008 EPA revised the NAAQS for lead from the previous quarterly average of 1.5µg/m3 to the more protective 3-month rolling average of 0.15µg/m3. As part of the lead monitoring requirements, monitoring agencies are required to monitor ambient air near lead sources which are expected to or have been shown to have a potential to contribute to a 3-month average lead concentration in ambient air in excess of the level of the NAAQS. At a minimum, monitoring agencies must monitor near lead sources that emit 1.0 ton per year (tpy) or more. Monitoring is also required in each Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) with a population equal to or greater than 500,000 people as determined by the latest available census figures. Revisions to the monitoring requirements pertaining to where State and local monitoring agencies would be required to conduct lead monitoring were finalized and became effective January 26, 2011. The new regulations replaced the population oriented monitoring requirement with a requirement to add Pb monitors to the urban NCore monitors. The EPA also lowered the emission threshold from 1.0 tpy to 0.50 tpy for industrial sources of lead (e.g., lead smelters and foundries). However, the emission threshold for airports was maintained at 1.0 tpy. In addition, an airport monitoring study has been implemented to determine the need for monitoring of airports which emit less than 1.0 tpy of lead. Under this new rule lead monitoring is required for a minimum of one year at 15 additional airports that have been identified as having characteristics that could lead to ambient lead concentrations approaching or exceeding the lead NAAQS. Brookhaven and Republic airports in Suffolk County, New York have been designated as such. The Brookhaven study was completed in October, 2012, and the Republic Airport monitoring concluded in October 2013.

The annual NAAQS for NO2 is set at 0.053 ppm. In 2010 EPA revised the NAAQS to include an hourly standard of 0.100 ppm. Under the new NO2 rule that became effective January 22, 2010 each MSA with population larger than 500,000 will be required to operate a near-road monitor beginning in 2013. On March 7, 2013, EPA issued a final rule to revise the deadlines by which the near-road monitors within the NO2 monitoring network are to be operational. States and local agencies are required to begin operating the near-road component of the NO2 network in phases between January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2017. This replaces the 2010 rule requirement that originally required all new NO2 monitors to begin operating on January 1, 2013. The near-road site in Buffalo commenced operation in April, 2014. Preparations are underway for two remaining sites in Rochester and Queens. The details will be published in an addendum to this plan when they are finalized.

In June, 2010, EPA established a new 1-hour SO2 standard at a level of 75 parts per billion (ppb), based on the 3-year average of the annual 99th percentile of 1-hour daily maximum concentrations. Additionally, both the 24-hour and annual primary SO2 standards were revoked. EPA also established requirements for SO2 monitoring in areas where there is an increased coincidence of population and SO2 emissions.

On Dec. 14, 2012 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) strengthened the nation's air quality standards for fine particle pollution to improve public health protection by revising the primary annual PM2.5 standard from 15 to 12 micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3) and retaining the 24-hour fine particle standard of 35μg/m3. The new standards became effective on March 18, 2013.

Through the years, ambient monitoring has always been an important and integral part of the overall effort to manage our environmental resources. The Bureau of Air Quality Surveillance, which was originally established in the Division of Air Resources under the Department of Health in 1966, has been performing ambient air monitoring since.

1.2 Topography and Climate of New York State

New York State contains 49,576 square miles, inclusive of 1,637 square miles of inland water, but exclusive of the boundary-water areas of Long Island Sound, New York Harbor, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie. The Adirondacks cover most of the northeast and occupy about one-fourth of the state's total area. The Appalachian Highlands, including the Catskill Mountains and Kittatinny Mountain Ridge (or Shawangunk Mountains), extend across the southern half of the state, from the Hudson River Valley to the basin of Lake Erie. Between these two upland regions, and also along the state's northern and eastern borders, lies a network of lowlands, including the Great Lakes Plain; the Hudson, Mohawk, Lake Champlain, and St. Lawrence valleys; and the coastal areas of New York City and Long Island.

The climate of New York State is broadly representative of the humid continental type, which prevails in the northeastern United States, but its diversity is not usually encountered within an area of comparable size. The geographical position of the state and the usual course of air masses, governed by the large-scale patterns of atmospheric circulation, provide general climatic controls. Differences in latitude, character of the topography, and proximity to large bodies of water have pronounced effects on the climate.

The planetary atmospheric circulation brings a great variety of air masses to New York State. Masses of cold, dry air frequently arrive from the northern interior of the continent. Prevailing winds from the south and southwest transport warm, humid air, which has been conditioned by the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent subtropical waters. These two air masses provide the dominant continental characteristics of the climate. The third great air mass flows inland from the North Atlantic Ocean and produces cool, cloudy, and damp weather conditions. This maritime influence is important to New York's climatic regime, especially in the southeastern portion of the state, but it is secondary to that of the more prevalent air mass flow from the continent.

The prevailing wind is generally from the west in New York State. A southwest component becomes evident in winds during the warmer months while a northwest component is characteristic of the colder one-half of the year.

The climate of the state features much cloudy weather during the months of November, December, and January in upstate New York, especially those regions that adjoin the Great Lakes and Finger Lakes and include the southern tier of counties. From June through September, however, about 60 to 70 percent of the possible sunshine hours are received. In the Atlantic coastal region, the sunshine hours increases from 50 percent of possible in the winter to about 65 percent of possible in the summer.

The Atlantic Coastal Plain and lower Hudson Valley experience conditions of high temperature and high humidity with some frequency and duration during the summer. By comparison, such conditions occur less frequently in the broad interior of New York State where they are usually shortened by the arrival of cooler, drier air masses from the northwest.

1.3 Population and Demographics

The US Census Bureau data for 2010 provide the following information for the State and 13 Metropolitan Areas of New York. The New York portion of the NY-NJ-CT-PA CMSA population numbered 13,038,826, constituting 69% of the State's total residents.

Table 1.1 2010 Census Population for Major Metropolitan Statistical Areas in New York
MSA 2000 2005* 2010 2013* Difference
(2000-2013)
%
Albany-Schenectady-Troy 875,583 848,879 870,716 877,905 2,322 0.27
Binghamton 252,320 248,422 251,725 247,777 -4,543 -1.8
Buffalo-Niagara Falls 1,170,111 1,147,711 1,135,509 1,134,115 -35,996 -3.08
Elmira 91,070 89,512 88,830 88,506 -2,564 -2.82
Glens Falls 124,345 128,572 128,923 128,430 4,085 3.29
Ithaca 96,501 100,018 101,564 103,617 7,116 7.37
Kingston 177,749 182,693 182,493 180,998 3,249 1.83
Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown 621,517 667,742 670,301 672,508 50,991 8.2
Nassau-Suffolk 2,753,913 2,808,064 2,832,882 2,851,884 97,971 3.56
New York-White Plains 9,314,235 9,477,427 9,908,456 10,071,134 756,899 8.13
Rochester 1,098,201 1,039,028 1,054,323 1,083,278 -14,923 -1.36
Syracuse 732,117 651,763 662,577 661,934 -70,183 -9.59
Utica-Rome 299,896 297,885 299,397 297,766 -2,130 -0.71
State Total 18,976,457 19,976,457 19,378,102 19,651,127 674,670 3.56

* Census Bureau estimation

According to Census Bureau, the NY state population in 2010 totaled 19,378,102, the third most populous State in the nation. The population change from 2000 indicates a net increase of 674,670 for the entire State. The State saw a modest growth overall in the 13-year period, mostly in the downstate areas at the expense of the western MSAs. A population density map by county based on the 2010 data is depicted in Figure 1.1

Population Density in New York State by County

Figure 1.1 Population Density in New York State by County

Environmental Justice Areas

Environmental justice (EJ) is defined as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.

Environmental justice efforts focus on improving the environment in communities, specifically minority and low-income communities, and addressing disproportionate adverse environmental impacts that may exist in those communities.

A map of potential EJ areas in the State is shown in Figure 1.2. Approximately 37% of New York's population resides in potential EJ areas. In our network, there are 19 air monitors, 14 of which downstate, sited within areas designated as such. The number of air monitoring sites located in potential EJ areas is commensurate with the population percentage residing therein. In the populous downstate area, 61% of the network monitors are located in potential EJ areas, in which 52% of the population lives.

Potential Environmental Justice Areas in New York State

Figure 1.2 Potential Environmental Justice Areas in New York State

Sensitive Sub-Populations

Children, the elderly, and people with underlying health issues may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects associated with air pollution, and are considered to be under the sensitive sub-populations category. Sixteen monitoring sites in the network are located on public school grounds, where attending students are of grade school to high school age.

Citizens groups often bring attention to NYSDEC the areas where they believe have high incidences of health related problems due to air pollution, such as asthma, respiratory diseases, and cancer clusters. Where possible we try to accommodate concerned citizens by providing air quality data from nearby monitoring sites. For example, IS 143 serves the Lower Washington Heights Neighborhood Association; and IS 74 the Nos Quedamos Community Development Corporation. In the case of the Clean Air Coalition of WNY, we were able to obtain EPA funding to carry out the Tonawanda Community Air Quality Study. In the Community Air Screen Program that began in the fall of 2012, 90% of the selected community groups are in or within half mile of potential EJ areas.

2. Chronology of Air Monitoring in New York State

Manual sampling programs began in 1958. Most of the early sampling stations measured suspended particulates, settleable particulates, and sulfation (an indicator of sulfur dioxide concentration). The early monitoring system employed high volume samplers, and for the first year, operated on a daily basis. Subsequently sampling was reduced to a 1-in-6 day schedule, after statistical analysis of the first year's data indicated that such sampling frequency would provide an adequate representation of particulate pollution. By 1964, the manual monitoring system had evolved to 104 full-time stations, 140 stations by 1970, and 250 by the mid 70's.

New York was among the first to install and operate a continuous air quality monitoring system. The parameters monitored in the early 70's included: sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, soiling, and meteorological data.

Trace metal analysis of high volume sampler filters was initiated in 1979. Historically the NYS Department of Health provided laboratory services until 2003, when the positions funded by our Department for the analysis work were eliminated due to a statewide workforce reduction. The lead analysis continued until 2005. The lack of formal funding mechanisms between the two state agencies precluded the continuation of laboratory analysis support. The necessary laboratory work is now provided by a contract laboratory.

In 1986, New York began measuring inhalable particulates using high volume air samplers with a 0-10 micron size selective inlet. In the same year the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network was also established. In 1987, EPA revised the PM standard to regulate PM10.

In 1988, the NYS ambient monitoring networks consisted of 85 TSP sites, 16 PM10, 15 carbon monoxide monitors, 27 sulfur dioxide sites, 20 ozone stations, 8 NOx monitors, and 18 lead sampling sites. There were 17 operational acid deposition sites statewide, and the initial phase of the toxics network was completed with the establishment of six toxic monitors in Staten Island. By 1990, the networks had the following make up: 58 TSP, 60 PM10, 25 SO2, 16 CO, 26 ozone, 7 NOx, 16 lead, 18 acid deposition, 10 toxics, and 8 trace metals sites, respectively.

In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, in 1994 BAQS established the first of two ambient air monitoring sites for enhanced ozone monitoring called Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) to collect and report detailed data for volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, ozone and meteorological parameters.

BAQS began implementing the PM2.5 monitoring networks of FRM and TEOM monitors in 1998. At its peak, there were 46 FRM instruments deployed. After sufficient data were obtained for attainment determination, FRM sites were reduced and some sites were augmented with TEOM instruments in order to provide realtime inputs for EPA's AIRNow website for Air Quality Index (AQI) reporting.

BAQS currently operates the following monitors: 28 ozone, 18 SO2, 7 NOx (including 3 NOy), 7 CO, 19 FRM PM2.5, 26 TEOM PM2.5, 5 FRM PM10, 3 TEOM 1405-DF (PM2.5, PM10, PMcourse), 8 CSN, 2 speciated carbon, 2 black carbon (aethalometer), 2 speciated mercury, 4 particulate sulfate, 7 acid deposition, 3 TSP-lead, 2 PM10 metals, 1 methane/non-methane, 11 toxics, 8 carbonyls, 2 PAMS, 2 hexavalent chromium, 2 PAHs, and 20 meteorological stations. Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 below show the geographic locations of monitoring sites in all nine regions of the State.

Location Map of Ambient Air Monitoring Sites in New York State, Excluding NYC

Figure 2.1 Location Map of Ambient Air Monitoring Sites in New York State, Excluding NYC

Location Map of Ambient Air Monitoring Sites in NYC

Figure 2.2 Location Map of Ambient Air Monitoring Sites in NYC

2.1 Monitoring Related Research and Investigations

In addition to the routine monitoring work, bureau staff collaborate with researchers from other agencies and academic institutions on a multitude of air pollution related studies. Over the years we have participated in research projects with the following partners: New York State Department of Health, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, State University of New York, Albany, Clarkson University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rutgers University, Drexel University, University of Rochester Medical Center, Desert Research Institute, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, City University of New York, and Columbia University. These endeavors provided valuable data for the regulatory, scientific, and health research communities. Study findings are communicated through journal publications, as well as presentations at technical meetings and conferences. Listings of peer-reviewed scientific articles and oral/poster presentations resulting from recent BAQS monitoring activities are provided below.

2.1.1 Publications

Kevin L. Civerolo, Oliver V. Rattigan, H. Dirk Felton, Matthew J. Hirsh and Steven DeSantis. Mercury Wet Deposition and speciated air concentrations from two urban locations in New York State: temporal patterns and regional context. Aerosol and Air Quality Reseaarch, Accepted May 214.

Oliver V. Rattigan, Kevin Civerolo, Prakash Doraiswamy, H. Dirk Felton and Philip K. Hopke. Long term black carbon measurements at two urban locations in New York. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 13, 1181-1196, 2013.

Thomas D. Matte, Zev Ross, Iyad Kheirbek, Holger Eisl, Sarah Johnson, John E. Gorczynski, Daniel Kass, Steven Markowitz, Grant Pezeshki and Jane E. Clougherty. Monitoring intra-urban spatial patterns of multiple combustion air pollutants in New York City: Design and implementation. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 23, 223-231, 2013.

Jane E. Clougherty, Iyad Kheirbek, Holger M. Eisl, Zev Ross, Grant Pezeshki, John E. Gorczynski, Sarah Johnson, Steven Markowitz, Daniel Kass and Thomas Matte. Intra-urban spatial variability in wintertime street-level concentrations of multiple combustion-related air pollutants: The New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS). Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 23, 232-240, 2013.

Yungang Wang, Jiaoyan Huang, Philip K. Hopke, Oliver V. Rattigan, David C. Chalupa, Mark J. Utell, Thomas M. Holsen. Effect of the shutdown of a large coal-fired power plant on ambient mercury species. Chemosphere, 92, 360-106, 2013

Hyun-Deok Choi, Jiaoyan Huang, Sumona Mondal, Thomas M. Holsen. Variation in concentrations of three mercury (Hg) forms at a rural and a suburban site in New York State. Science of the Total Environment, 448, 96-106, 2013.

Zheming Tong, Yan Jason Wang, Molini Patel, Patrick Kinney, Steven Chrillrud and K. Max Zhang. Modeling Spatial Variations of Black Carbon Particles in an Urban Highway-Building Environment. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 312-319, 2012.

Yungang Wang, Philip K. Hopke, Oliver V. Rattigan, David C. Chalupa, Mark J. Utell. Multi-year black carbon measurement and source apportionment using Delta-C in Rochester, NY. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 62, 880-887, 2012.

Yungang Wang, Philip K. Hopke, Oliver V. Rattigan, A new Indicator of Firework Emissions in Rochester, New York. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184, 7293-7297, 2012.

Yu Chi Lin, James J. Schwab, Kenneth L. Demerjian, Min-Suk Bae, Wei-Nai Chen, Yele Sun, Qi Zhang, Hui-Ming Hung, and Jacqueline Perry, Summertime formaldehyde observations in New York City: Ambient levels, sources and its contribution to HOx radicals. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 117, D08305, 14 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JD016504

Yungang Wang, Philip K. Hopke, Xiaoyan Xia, Oliver V. Rattigan, David C. Chalupa, Mark J. Utell. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using inorganic and organic species as tracers. Atmospheric Environment, 55, 525-532, 2012.

Jiaoyan Huang, Philip K. Hopke, Hyun-Deok Choi, James R. Laing, Huailue Cui, Tiffany J. Zananski, Sriraam Ramanathan Chandrasekaran, Oliver V. Rattigan and Thomas M. Holsen,
Mercury (Hg) emissions from domestic biomass combustion for space heating, Chemosphere 84, 1694-1699, 2011.

Yungang Wang, Philip K. Hopke, Oliver V. Rattigan and Yifang Zhu, Characterization of ambient black carbon and wood burning particles in two urban areas, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, 1919-1926, 2011.

Y.-L. Sun, Q. Zhang, J. J. Schwab, K. L. Demerjian, W.-N. Chen, M.-S. Bae, H.-M. Hung, O. Hogrefe, B. Frank, O. V. Rattigan, and Y.-C. Lin, Characterization of the sources and processes of organic and inorganic aerosols in New York city with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1581-1602, 2011.

Min-Suk Bae, James J. Schwab, Wei-Nai Chen1, Chuan-Yao Lin, Oliver V. Rattigan, Kenneth L. Demerjian. Identifying pollutant source directions using multiple analysis at a rural location in New York, Atmospheric Environment, 45, 2531-2540, 2011.

Oliver V. Rattigan, H. Dirk Felton, Min-Suk Bae, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian. Comparison of long-term PM2.5 carbon measurements at an urban and rural location in New York. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 3228-3236, 2011.

Yungang Wang, Philip K. Hopke, Oliver V. Rattigan and Xiaoyan Xia. Characterization of residential wood combustion particles using the two-wavelength aethalometer, Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 7387-7393, 2011.

Oliver V. Rattigan, H. Dirk Felton, Min-Suk Bae, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian, Multi-year hourly PM2.5 carbon measurements in New York: Diurnal, day of week and seasonal patterns, Atmospheric Environment, 44, 2043-2053, 2011.

Yungang Wang, Philip K. Hopke, David C. Chalupa, Mark J. Utell. Long-term study of urban ultrafine particles and other pollutants. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 7672-7680, 2011.

Vincent A. Dutkiewicz, Liaquat Husain, Utpal K. Roychowdhury, Kenneth L. Demerjian. Impact of Canadian wildfire smoke on air quality at two rural sites in NY State, Atmospheric Environment, 45, 2028-2033, 2011.

Vincent A. Dutkiewicz, Liaquat Husain, Utpal K. Roychowdhury, Kenneth L. Demerjian, Black carbon transport to a remote mountaintop in the northeastern US and relationship with other pollutants, Atmospheric Environment, 45, 2011-2019, 2011.

Yungang Wang, Philip K. Hopke, Mark. J. Utell, Urban-scale Spatial-temporal Variability of Black Carbon and Winter Residential Wood Combustion Particles, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 11, 473-481, 2011.

Yungang Wang, Jiaoyan Huang, Tiffany J Zananski, Philip K Hopke, Thomas M Holsen, Impacts of the Canadian forest fires on atmospheric mercury and carbonaceous particles in Northern New York. Environmental Science & Technology, vol 44, 8435-8440, 2010.

Ozone, Trace Gas, and Particulate Matter Measurements at a Rural Site in Southwestern New York State: 1995-2005, James J. Schwab, John B. Spicer, and Kenneth L. Demerjian, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 59:293-309, 2009.

Dirk Felton, Is it Time to Upgrade the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method? Air & Waste Management EM Magazine, February, 2009.

Haider A. Khwajaa, Pravin P. Parekha, Adil R. Khana , Daniel L. Hershey, Ronaq R. Naqvie, Abdul Malikf, Khalid Khanf, In-Depth Characterization of Urban Aerosols Using Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis, CLEAN, 37(7), Pages 544-554, 2009.

Valerie B Haley, Thomas O Talbot and Henry D Felton, Surveillance of the Impact of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Disease in New York State, Environmental Health, 2009. 8:42 (22 September 2009).

Stephen R. McDow, Monica A. Mazurek, Min Li, Lee Alter, John Graham, H. Dirk Felton, Thomas McKenna, Charles Pietarinen, Alan Leston, Steve Bailey, Sania W. Tong Argao, Speciation and Atmospheric Abundance of Organic Compounds in PM2.5 from the New York City Area. I. Sampling Network, Sampler Evaluation, Molecular Level Blank Evaluation. Aerosol Science and Technology, 42:50-63, 2008.

Vincent A. Dutkiewicz, Sumizah Qureshi, Adil R. Khan, Liaquat Husain, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian, Field test data for 42 liter per minute PM2.5 aerosol sampler used during the PMTACS-NY intensives held at Queens College, Queens, NY, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 40, Supplement 2, 2006, Pages 182-191.

Sumizah Qureshi, Vincent A. Dutkiewicz, Adil R. Khan, Kamal Swami, Karl X.Yang, Liaquat Husain, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian, Elemental composition of PM2.5 aerosols in Queens, New York: Solubility and temporal trends, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 40, Supplement 2, 2006, Pages 238-251.

Vincent A. Dutkiewicz, Sumizah Qureshi, Liaquat Husain, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian, Elemental composition of PM2.5 aerosols in Queens, New York: Evaluation of sources of fine-particle mass, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 40, Supplement 2, 2006, Pages 347-359.

Min-Suk Bae, Kenneth L. Demerjian and James J. Schwab, Seasonal estimation of organic mass to organic carbon in PM2.5 at rural and urban locations in New York state, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 40, Issue 39, December 2006, Pages 7467-7479.

Oliver V. Rattigan, Olga Hogrefe, H.D. Felton, James J. Schwab, Utpal K. Roychowdhury, Liaquat Husain, Vincent A. Dutkiewicz and Kenneth L. Demerjian, Multi-year urban and rural semi-continuous PM2.5 sulfate and nitrate measurements in New York state: Evaluation and comparison with filter based measurements, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 40, Supplement 2, 2006, Pages 192-205.

Xinrong Ren, William H. Brune, Jingqiu Mao, Michael J. Mitchell, Robert L. Lesher, James B. Simpas, Andrew R. Metcalf, James J. Schwab, Yongquan Li, Kenneth L. Demerjian, Henry D. Felton, Garry Boynton, Allen Adams, Jacqueline Perry, Yi He, Xianliang Zhou, and Jian Hou, Behavior of OH and HO2 in the Winter Atmosphere in New York City, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 40, Supplement 2, 2006, Pages 252-263.

Liming Zhou, Philip K. Hopke and Prasanna Venkatachari, Cluster analysis of single particle mass spectra measured at Flushing, NY, Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 555, Issue 1, 5 January 2006, Pages 47-56.

Schwab J.J., Felton H.D., Rattigan O.V., Demerjian K.L., New York State Urban and Rural Measurements of Continuous PM2.5 Mass by FDMS, TEOM and BAM, Journal Air & Waste Management Assoc. 2006, Volume 56:372-383.

Schwab, J.J., O. Hogrefe, K. L. Demerjian, V. A. Dutkiewicz, L. Husain, O. V. Rattigan, and H. D. Felton, Field and Laboratory Evaluation of the Thermo Electron 5020 Sulfate Particulate Analyzer, Aerosol Science & Technology, 2006, 40, S1, 36-44.

Venkatachari P., Zhou L., Hopke P.K., Felton D., Rattigan O.V., Schwab J.J., Demerjian K.L., Spatial and Temporal Variability of Black Carbon in New York City, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2006, Vol 111, D10S05, 1-9.

Venkatachari P., Zhou L., Hopke P.K., Schwab J.J., Demerjian K.L., Weimer, S., Hogrefe O., Felton D., Rattigan O.,., An Intercomparison of Measurement Methods for Carbonaceous Aerosol in the Ambient Air in New York City, Aerosol Science & Technology, 2006, 40, 788-795.

Nenad Aleksic, Garry Boynton, Gopal Sistla, Jacqueline Perry, Concentrations and Trends of Benzene in Ambient Air over New York State during 1990-2003 Atmospheric Environment Volume 39 (2005) 7894-7905.

Zheng Li, Philip K. Hopke, Liaquat Husain, Sumizah Qureshi, Vincent A. Dutkiewicz, James J. Schwab, Frank Drewnick and Kenneth L. Demerjian, Sources of fine particle composition in New York city, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 38, Issue 38, December 2004, Pages 6521-6529.

Drewnick, F., J. J. Schwab, J. T. Jayne, M. Canagaratna, D.R. Worsnop, and K.L. Demerjian, Measurement of ambient aerosol composition during the PMTACS-NY 2001 campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer. Part I: Mass concentrations, Aerosol Science and Technology, 38(SI), 92-103, 2004.

Drewnick, F., J.T. Jayne, M. Canagaratna, D.R. Worsnop and K.L. Demerjian, Measurement of ambient aerosol composition during the PMTACS-NY 2001 campaign using an aerosol mass spectrometer. Part II: Chemically speciated mass distribution, Aerosol Science and Technology, 38(SI):104-117, 2004.

Dutkiewicz, V. A., S.Qureshi, A.R. Khan, V. Ferrara, J. Schwab, K. Demerjian, and L. Husain , Sources of fine particulate sulfate in New York". Atmos. Environ., 38, 3179-3189, 2004.

Hogrefe, O., F. Drewnick, G.G. Lala, J. J. Schwab, and K.L. Demerjian , Development, operation and applications of an aerosol generation, calibration and research facility, new instruments and data inversion methods, Aerosol Science and Technol.ogy, 38(SI): 196-214, 2004.

Hogrefe, O., J. Schwab, F. Drewnick, K. Rhoads, G.G. Lala, H.D. Felton, O.V. Rattigan, L. Husain, V.A. Dutkiewicz, S. Peters, and K.L. Demerjian , Semi-continuous PM2.5 sulfate and nitrate measurements at an urban and a rural location in New York: PMTACS-NY Summer 2001 and 2002 campaigns., J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 54, 1040-1060, 2004.

Schwab, J.J., H.D. Felton, and K.L. Demerjian, Aerosol chemical composition in New York state from integrated filter samples: Urban/rural and seasonal contrasts". J. Geophys. Res., 109, D16S05, doi:10.1029/2003JD004078, 2004.

Schwab, J.J., J. Spicer, K.L. Demerjian, J.L. Ambs, and H.D. Felton, Long-term field characterization of TEOM and modified TEOM samplers in urban and rural New York State locations". J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 54, 1264-1280, 2004.

Schwab, J.J., O. Hogrefe, K.L. Demerjian, and J.L. Ambs, Laboratory characterization of modified TEOM samplers", J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 54, 1254-1263, 2004.

Schwab, J.J., Y.-Q. Li, and K.L. Demerjian, Semi-continuous formaldehyde measurements with a diffusion scrubber/liquid fluorescence analyzer. In Symposium on air quality measurement methods and technology - 2004 [CD-ROM in press], Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2004.

Canagaratna, M. J., J. T. Jayne, D. Ghertner, S. Herndon, Q. Shi, J. L. Jimenez , P.J. Silva, P. Williams, T. Lanni, F. Drewnick, K. L. Demerjian, C. Kolb, D. Worsnop, Chase Studies of Particulate Emissions from inuse New York City Vehicles, Aerosol Science & Technology, 38, 555-573, 2004.

Li, Z., P.K. Hopke, L.Husain, S. Qureshi, V.A. Dutkiewicz, J.J. Schwab, F. Drewnick, and K.L. Demerjian, Sources of Fine Particle Composition in New York City, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 6521-6529, 2004.

Drewnick, F., J.J. Schwab, O. Hogrefe, S. Peters, L. Husain, D. Diamond, R. Weber, and K.L. Demerjian, Intercomparison and evaluation of four semi-continuous PM2.5 sulfate instruments, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 3335- 3350, 2003.

Ren, X., H. Harder, M. Martinez, R.L. Lesher, A. Oliger, T. Shirley, J. Adams, J. B. Simpas, and W.H. Brune, J, HOx concentrations and OH reactivity observations in New York City during PMTACS-NY 2001, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 3627-3637, 2003.

Ren, X., H. Harder, M. Martinez, R.L. Lesher, A. Oliger, J. B. Simpas, W.H. Brune, J. J. Schwab, K.L. Demerjian, Y. He, X. Zhou, and H. Gao, OH and HO2 chemistry in the urban atmosphere of New York City, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 3639-3651, 2003.

Schwab, J.J., J. Spicer, H.D. Felton, J.A. Ambs, and K.L. Demerjian, Long-term comparison of TEOM, SES TEOM and FRM measurements at rural and urban New York sites, in Symposium on Air Quality Measurements and Technology - 2002I, VIP-115-CD, ISBN 0-923204-50-4, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 2003.

Yu, F., T. Lanni, and B. Frank, Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 10, 1417-1423, 2003.

Zhou, X., H. Gao, Y. He, G. Hung, S.B. Bertman, K. Civerolo, and J. Schwab, "Nitric acid photolysis on surfaces in low-NOx environments: Significant atmospheric implications". Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2217, doi:10.1029/2003GL108620, 2003.

2.1.2 Posters/Presentations

Everything but Routine: Air Monitoring from Sept 11 to Sandy, Dirk Felton, Central New York A&WMA Conference, March 2014.

Interim Report: Phase I of the Air Quality Study of the Impact of the Peace Bridge Plaza on the Surrounding Neighborhood, A&WMA Annual Conference, Dirk Felton, Rochester, NY, February 2014.

The Air Quality Impact of Super Storm Sandy and the Mitigation Strategies That Could Have Helped, Dirk Felton, NYSERDA EMAP Conference, Nov -7, 2013.

The following posters were presented at the EMEP Conference, Nov 6-7. 2013, Albany.

  1. Long-term trends of air polutants in New York State: urban-rural contrasts, Oliver V. Rattigan, Kevin L. Civerolo, H. Dirk Felton, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian.
  2. 25 Years of Atmospheric Monitoring at Whiteface Mountain Observatory: A Data Set Available for the Environmental Research Community. R. E. Brandt, J. J. Schwab, K. L. Demerjian, O. V. Rattigan and H. D. Felton.
  3. Correlation between Ambient Ultrafine Particle Events at Two Geographically displaced Monitors in New York City, Brian P. Frank, H. D. Felton, Oliver V. Rattigan, Robert C. Anderson, Jacqueline Perry, Olga Hogrefe, Brian Aho, Gil LaDuke, and Hamza Hafeez.

Appropriately Interpreting Air Quality Data in an Emergency Response, Dirk Felton, 8th Annual Interagency Workshop Using Environmental Informaton to Prepare and Respond to Emergencies, Dirk Felton, New York University Kimmel Center, July 2013.

Enhancements to acid deposition monitoring in New York State. KL Civerolo, HD Felton, KM Roy, and GG Lampman. Presented at the Northeastern Ecosystem Research Cooperative Meeting in Saratoga Springs, NY (March 2013) and the Adirondack Researc Consortium Annaul Conference on the Adirondacks in Lake Placid, NY (May 2013).

Ultrafine Particle Measurements and Evaluation of Mobile Source Contribution in New York City. Brian P. Frank, James J. Schwab, G. Garland Lala, Oliver V. Rattigan, H. D. Felton, Kenneth L. Demerjian, Robert C. Anderson, Gil LaDuke, and Hongyu Li. 23rd CRC Real World Emissions Workshop, San Diego, CA, April 7-10, 2013.

Ultrafine Particle Monitor (TSI 3031) Measurements and Evaluation in New York City, James J. Schwab, G. Garland Lala, Kenneth L, Demerjian, Brian P. Frank, H. D. Felton, Oliver V. Rattigan, Presented at the American Association for Aerosol Research 31st Annual Conference, October 8-12, 2012, Minneapolis, MN.

Spatial Extent of New Particle Formation and Growth Events, James J. Schwab, G. Garland Lala, Kenneth L, Demerjian, Brian P. Frank, H. D. Felton, Oliver V. Rattigan, Presented at the American Association for Aerosol Research 31st Annual Conference, October 8-12, 2012, Minneapolis, MN.

The Age Old Question: Continuous or 24-hr Integrated Measurements, Oliver V. Rattigan, Kevin L. Civerolo, H. D. Felton and James J. Schwab, Presented at the American Association for Aerosol Research 31st Annual Conference, October 8-12, 2012, Minneapolis, MN.

NYSDEC Collaborative Community Air Screening, Dirk Felton, Randi Walker, National Air Monitoring Conference, Denver, CO May, 2012.

Temporal Patterns of Air Pollutants at Urban Locations, Oliver V. Rattigan, 30th Regional Meeting on Kinetics and Dynamics, Wadsworth Center, Albany, Jan 28, 2012.

The following 4 Posters were presented at the EMEP Conference, November 15-16, 2011:

  • Behavior of ultrafine particles and related particulate and gaseous species at two geographically distributed sites in new york city, B.P. Frank, H.D. Felton, O. Hogrefe, J. Perry, O.V. Rattigan, and R.A. Anderson.
  • A method to extract and interpret additional aerosol organic carbon fractions from thermal optical analysis of filter-based data, M. Bae, J.J. Schwab, O.V. Rattigan, K.L. Demerjian, M. Choe, and S. Kim.
  • PM2.5 Class III FEMS: performance evaluation at Queens College, New York, O. V. Rattigan, D. H. Felton, and M. Christophersen.
  • Variations and trends in PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and carbon concentrations at a rural and an urban site in new york state , J. J. Schwab, K. L. Demerjian, O. V. Rattigan, and H. D. Felton.

Variations and trends in PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and carbon concentrations at a rural and an urban site in New York State, James J. Schwab, Kenneth L. Demerjian, Oliver V. Rattigan, and H. D. Felton, Presented at the American Geophysical Union Annual meeting, San Francisco, November 2011.

A Method to Extract and Interpret Additional Aerosol Organic Carbon Fractions from Thermal Optical Analysis of Filter-Based Data, Min-Suk Bae, James J. Schwab, Oliver V. Rattigan, Kenneth L. Demerjian, American Association for Aerosol Research, 30th annual conference October 3-7, 2011, Orlando, FL.

Characterization of residential wood combustion particles using the two-wavelength aethalometer, Yungang Wang, Philip K. Hopke, Oliver V. Rattigan and Xiaoyan Xia, American Association for Aerosol Research, 30th annual conference October 3-7, 2011, Orlando, FL.

Comparison of Long-Term and Seasonal Behavior of Ultrafine Particles and Related Species Between Urban Near-Road and Area-Wide Monitors in New York City. Brian P Frank, HD Felton, Olga Hogrefe, Jacqueline Perry, ROBERT A ANDERSON. American Association for Aerosol Research, 30th annual conference October 3-7, 2011, Orlando, FL.

Establishing an Ambient Mercury Baseline in New York State: Results from an EPA Community Assessment Grant, National Air Toxics Monitoring and Data Analysis Workshop Dallas, TX, April 4-7, 2011.

The View From Ground Level, a Perspective from the States, Well, at Least the Ambient Air Monitoring Perspective from one State, Dirk Felton, P.E., Health Effects Institute Annual Conference, May 1-3, 2011 Boston, MA.

Comparison of new and old CSN carbon with collocated measurements in New York. Oliver V. Rattigan and H. Dirk Felton, Min-Suk Bae, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian, 29th Annual AAAR Conference, Portland OR, October 25-29, 2010.

Life in the Big City: Evolution of Particle Concentration, Size Distribution, and Composition on a "Typical" Summer Day in Queens, New York City. Schwab et al., (co-authors; ASRC and DEC) 29th Annual AAAR Conference, Portland OR, October 25-29, 2010.

Intercomparison of Long-Term Ambient Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution Measurements at a Near-Roadway and a Representative Urban Site in New York City. Brian P. Frank, Jacqueline Perry, H. D. Felton, Robert A. Anderson, Oliver V. Rattigan. 29th Annual AAAR Conference, Portland OR, October 25-29, 2010.

Urban Mercury Monitoring: Data Review and Operational Notes: A Year Spent with the Tekran Speciated Ambient Mercury Analyzer at Two Urban Locations in New York State and an update of the AMNET program, Dirk Felton, Kevin Civerolo, Matt Hirsh: NYSDEC, MARAMA Monitoring Conference, February 23, 2010.

NYSDEC Experience with the Synspec BTEX Instrument, Paul Sierzenga, NYS Dept of Environmental Conservation, 2009 EPA National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference.

A Year Spent with the Tekran Speciated Ambient Mercury Analyzer at Two Urban Locations in New York State, Dirk Felton, Kevin Civerolo, Matt Hirsh: NYSDEC Bureau of Air Quality Surveillance, 2009 EPA National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference.

Tonawanda New York Community Air Quality Study, Paul Sierzenga, NYS Dept of Environmental Conservation, 2009 EPA National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference.

Calibration System for Low Range GPT Calibrations of High Sensitivity NOx and NOy Monitors, Dirk Felton, Malcolm Baker: NYSDEC Bureau of Air Quality Surveillance

Kirk Lovewell, Mark Cogan: Teledyne API, 2009 EPA National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference.

Aerosol Carbon Measurements Using Different Techniques in New York: Comparison of Total Carbon, Oliver Rattigan, Atmospheric Sciences Research Center Seminar, December 9, 2008.

Aerosol Optical Properties Obtained from Continuous Mass, Composition and Scattering Measurements, James J. Schwab, Min-Suk Bae, Olga Hogrefe, Qi Zhang, G. Garland Lala, Ken Demerjian and Oliver Rattigan, American Association for Aerosol Research Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, October 20-24, 2008.

Effect of Particle Properties on Determination of Mean Particle Size Using the Electrical Aerosol Detector, Brian P. Frank, Olga Hogrefe, Daniel Hershey, American Association for Aerosol Research 27th Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, October 20-24, 2008.

Aerosol Carbon Measurements Using Different Techniques in New York, Oliver Rattigan, Dirk Felton, James Schwab, Min-Suk Bae and Kenneth Demerjian, American Association for Aerosol Research Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, October 20-24, 2008.

Continuous PM2.5 Speciation Measurements in New York, Oliver V. Rattigan, H. Dirk Felton, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian, Extended Abstract # 524, Air & Waste Management Association Annual Conference, Portland, OR, June 24-27, 2008.

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring and Health Research Workshop to Discuss Key Issues, Session 1: Elemental and Organic Carbon Measurements, Chemical Speciation Network: Carbon Issues, Eastern and Western Perspectives on Air Quality Monitoring, Dirk Felton, EPA - RTP, April 16-17, 2008.

Air Quality Monitoring in New York State, Northeast/New England Regional Air Quality Conference, Dirk Felton, April, 2008.

Why continuous PM2.5 FEM III data may not be appropriate for attainment demonstrations, National Air Quality Conference, Dirk Felton, Portland, OR, April 6-9, 2008

Results of PM2.5 Continuous Speciation Measurements in New York, Oliver Rattigan, NYSDEC PE Seminar, March 11, 2008.

Air Quality Data Summit, Session: Inventory of Data Systems, Data provider perspectives, Dirk Felton, RTP, NC, February 12-13, 2008.

Predicting near real-time PM2.5 FRM Concentrations from Continuous Mass and Species Measurements in New York City. Dirk H. Felton, Oliver V. Rattigan, James J. Schwab, Kenneth L. Demerjian, AAAR, Reno, NV, Sept 25, 2007.

Highlights of PM2.5 Continuous Speciation Measurements in New York, Oliver, V. Rattigan, AAAR 26th Annual Conference, Reno, NV, Sept 25, 2007.

PM2.5 Carbon Measurements in New York; Comparison of Techniques and Seasonal, Weekday and Diurnal Patterns, Oliver V. Rattigan, Air & Waste Management Association Symposium on Air Quality Measurement Methods and Technology, San Francisco, May 2, 2007.

Multi-Year Measurements of Black Carbon at two Urban Locations in New York: Comparison with Elemental Carbon, Oliver V. Rattigan, H. (Dirk) Felton, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian, AAAR 2006.

Speciated PMcoarse by Difference: A look at a year of XRF data in New York City and in Niagara Falls, New York, Dirk Felton, Kevin Civerolo and Oliver Rattigan, EPA National Monitoring Conference, 2006.

Semi-Continuous Measurements of PM2.5 Carbon at the South Bronx, NY: Comparison with Filter Measurements, Oliver Rattigan, EPA National Monitoring Conference, 2006. (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/2006conference/schwabsemi.pdf)

Concentrations of PM2.5 and Selected Trace Metals Across the NYC Metropolitan Region, Kevin Civerolo, EPA National Monitoring Conference, 2006.

Modifying 50 °C TEOM Data to be more "FRM like" for AQI Reporting using a Non-linear Correction based on the Julian Day, Dirk Felton, Oliver Rattigan, EPA National Monitoring Conference, 2006.

Multiyear Evaluations of PMcoarse by Difference Utilizing Low and High Volume Samplers and Collocated 50 Deg. C TEOMs, Dirk Felton, Oliver V. Rattigan, Robert Baker and Paul Sierzenga, EPA National Monitoring Conference, 2006.

Level 1 Data Validation - Validation at the Grass Roots Level, Paul Sierzenga, EPA National Monitoring Conference, 2006.

Measurement of Ambient Aerosol Composition Using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer in New York City: Winter 2004 Intensive Study, Silke Weimer, Frank Drewnick,, James J. Schwab, Kevin Rhoads,, Douglas Orsini,, Kenneth L. Demerjian, Douglas R. Worsnop, Qi Zhang, Jose J. Jimenez, Dirk Felton, AAAR, 2005.

Continuous Sulfate, Carbon, and PM2.5 Mass at Addison, NY during the Summer 2004 NEAQS/ITCT Field Intensive, James J. Schwab,John Spicer, Olga Hogrefe, Oliver V. Rattigan, H. D. Felton, Kevin Rhoads, Silke Weimer, Yongquan Li, G. Garland Lala, and Kenneth L. Demerjian, AAAR, 2005.

Measurement Uncertainty in the Determination of Fine Particle Mass, Sulfate, and Selected Transition Metals, James J. Schwab, H. D. Felton, Liaquat Husain, and Kenneth L. Demerjian, AAAR, 2005.

Urban and Rural Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter in New York State, James J. Schwab, H. D. Felton, Kevin Civerolo, Liaquat Husain, and Kenneth L. Demerjian, AAAR, 2005.

Continuous PM2.5 Sulfate and Carbon at Addison in Rural New York State: Measurements from and Evaluations of the Thermo 5020 Sulfate and the Sunset Labs OCEC Instruments, James J. Schwab, Olga Hogrefe, Oliver V. Rattigan, H. D. Felton, Vincent Dutkiewicz, Liaquat Husain and Kenneth L. Demerjian, AAAR, Atlanta, February 7-11, 2005.

Semi-continuous PM2.5 Sulfate and Nitrate Measurements in New York: Routine Field Measurements and Intensive Field Campaigns, Olga Hogrefe, Oliver V. Rattigan, James J. Schwab, Frank Drewnick, Silke Weimer, Kevin Rhoads, Kenneth L. Demerjian, PM Supersites AAAR Conference, February 7-11, 2005, Atlanta, GA.

Intercomparison and Evaluation of Semi-Continuous PM-2.5 Nitrate and Sulfate Instruments

During PMTACS-NY Summer 2001 Campaign in New York City, Olga Hogrefe, Frank Drewnick, James J. Schwab, Henry D. Felton, Kenneth L. Demerjian, AGU 2004.

Semi-Continuous PM2.5 Sulfate and Nitrate Measurements in New York: Routine Field Measurements and Intensive Field Campaigns, Olga Hogrefe, Oliver V. Rattigan, James J. Schwab, Utpal Roychowdhury, Frank Drewnick, Silke Weimer, Kevin Rhoads and Kenneth L. Demerjian, AAAR, Atlanta, 2005.

Relationship Between NOy, PM, Nitrate And PM2.5 At A Mountain Site In Upstate New York During The PMTACS-NY Program, U. K. Roychowdhury, R. A. Lamica, J. Schwab and K. L. Demerjian, O. Rattigan, H.D. Felton. AAAR, Atlanta, February 7-11, 2005.

Estimates Of PM2.5 Aerosol Acidity From Inorganic Ion Balance Measurements At Urban And Rural New York State Locations From CSN Integrated Filters, James Schwab, Rachelle Jenkins, Kenneth Demerjian, Dirk Felton, AAAR, Atlanta, February 7-11, 2005.

Highlights And Lessons Learned: PM2.5 Technology Assessment And Characterization Study In New York - PMTACS-NY Supersite Program, Kenneth L. Demerjian, J. Schwab, G. Lala, O. Hogrefe, Y. Li, S. Weimer, AAAR 2005.

Real-time PM2.5 Black Carbon Measurements at Rochester and the South Bronx, NY (PDF) (1.3 MB), O. V. Rattigan, H. D. Felton and K. L. Civerolo, EMEP, NYSERDA, October 25, 2005.

New York State Urban and Rural Measurements of Continuous PM2.5 Mass by FDMS TEOM and BAM: Evaluation and Comparisons with the FRM, D. Felton, O.V. Rattigan, K.L. Demerjian, J.J. Schwab,.AAAR 2005, February 7-11, 2005.

Air Quality and Related Health Research: Particulates (PM) and Co-Pollutants: What is in Ambient Particulate Matter?, Dirk Felton, NYSERDA EMEP Conference, 2005.

A Review and Update of PM-2.5 Mass and Species Monitoring in New York State, Dirk Felton, NYSDOH Division of Environmental Health Assessment, 2005

Measurements of PM2.5 Carbon in New York City, Oliver V. Rattigan and H. D. Felton, James J. Schwab and Kenneth L. Demerjian, Organic Speciation Workshop, Las Vegas, 2004. (http://www.wrapair.org/APACE/SPECIATION/VegasOC_2004_Rattigan.pdf)

Semi-Continuous Measurements of PM2.5 Sulfate, Nitrate and Co-Pollutants at an urban and a rural location. Oliver V. Rattigan, Olga Hogrefe, D.H. Felton, James J. Schwab, and Kenneth L. Demerjian, AAAR 2004.

R&P 8400S and R&P 8400N Ambient Particulate Sulfate and Nitrate Monitors: Performance during PMTACS-NY Intensive Field Campaigns and Routine Measurements, O. Hogrefe, O.V. Rattigan, James J. Schwab, Frank Drewnick, Kevin Rhoads, Silke Weimer, Douglas Orsini, and Kenneth L. Demerjian, EMEP NYSERDA Conference, 2004.

FDMS Instrument Evaluation, Dirk Felton, National Supersite Data Review Meeting, 2004

Particulate Sampling Issues: Why does the Division of Air have to do scientific research above and beyond EPA particulate sampling requirements?, Dirk Felton, NYSDEC Commissioner Briefing, 2004.

NY Metals Analysis: Method Comparison, Dirk Felton, EPA & NESCAUM Toxics Methods Meeting, 2003.

Semi-continuous PM2.5 Sulfate and Nitrate Measurements in New York City and Whiteface Mountain, O. V. Rattigan, D. H. Felton, J. J. Schwab, U.K. Roychowdhury and K. L. Demerjian, EMEP Conference, NYSERDA, Oct 2003.

PM-2.5 Monitoring in New York State: Speciation Data, TEOM / FRM Comparisons, PM Coarse, Dirk Felton, MARAMA Air Monitoring Committee Meeting, 2002.

NY Discussion of Issues: TEOM Correlations, Quebec Smoke, PM2.5 Speciation Data, PMcoarse, Dirk Felton, EPA SAMWG Meeting, 2002.

3. Monitoring Sites

The Bureau's tasks and responsibilities are carried out by staff in four Sections. While the field operators are stationed throughout the State, the managers are physically located in the Central Office in Albany (Northern Monitoring, Network Operations), our Region 2 Office in Long Island City (Southern Monitoring), and the SUNY East Campus in Rensselaer (Monitoring Support). Functionally, the Northern Monitoring Section is responsible for ambient air monitoring sites in upstate New York north of and including the counties of Rockland and Putnam. The Southern Monitoring Section is responsible for ambient air monitoring sites in the counties of Westchester, Nassau, Suffolk, and those counties comprising the City of New York. Currently there are 55 active sites statewide. Figures 3.1 and 3.2 show monitoring site locations for the two monitoring operations, respectively.

Site Locations for Northern Monitoring Operation

Figure 3.1 Site Locations for Northern Monitoring Operation

Site Locations for Southern Monitoring Operation

Figure 3.2 Site Locations for Southern Monitoring Operation

Information pertaining to each monitoring site including site photo, location, parameters monitored, sampling frequency, and analysis methodologies is provided below for the two monitoring operations.

Most of the monitoring sites meet the siting criteria requirements for the parameters monitored as specified in Appendix E of 40 CFR Part 50. For the few sites that do not meet all of the siting requirements, we have demonstrated to EPA that in all instances the site is as representative of the monitoring area as it would be if the siting criteria were being met, and that the monitor or probe cannot reasonably be located so as to meet the siting criteria because of physical constraints. Waivers have been granted by the Regional Administrator for these sites.