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1997 PRL Annual Report - Executive Summary

Background

On July 8, 1996, Governor George E. Pataki signed into law Chapter 279, Laws of 1996, establishing the Pesticide Sales and Use Data Base and Record Keeping and Reporting Law (Pesticide Reporting Law or PRL) (amended, L.1997, C.260, §1, effective July 21, 1997.) The Pesticide Reporting Law requires all commercial pesticide applicators to report to the Department information regarding each pesticide application. Commercial permittees are required to report all sales of restricted use pesticide products and sales of general use pesticide products sold to private applicators for use in agricultural crop production. The Law's enactment was driven partially by the desire to evaluate possible links between pesticide use and breast cancer. The Public Health Law provisions were subsequently amended to include prostate and testicular cancer research and education. (L.1997, C.219 effective January 14, 1998).

Outreach

To facilitate sound implementation of the Law, the regulated community was included as partners in the design of the methods, procedures and forms used to provide the data called for by the legislation. In addition, a comprehensive outreach and training program was developed and implemented by the State Department of Environmental Conservation (the "Department") to educate the regulated community about the requirements of the Law. This effort included holding nine statewide workshops between October 1996 and December 1997 that were attended by more than 3,600 participants. In addition, 118 additional outreach opportunities to various pesticide user groups and associations, breast cancer advocacy groups, environmental groups, the public and others were conducted by the Department. As a result, as of June 19, 1998, 13,483, or 85 percent, of commercial pesticide applicators and 417, or 93 percent, of commercial permittees complied with the reporting requirements of the Law in its first year.

To assist the regulated community in understanding and complying with the new reporting requirements, a Technical and Administrative Guidance Memorandum ("TAGM") and other guidance documents were developed and distributed.

Continued efforts have been undertaken to compel the regulated community to comply with the reporting requirements of the law. Several letters were sent to non-compliers notifying them of the requirement to report and warning of further actions that would be taken by the Department in response to their non-compliance. Beginning on June 22, 1998, Environmental Conservation Officers visited 258 regulated entities across the state that had not reported as required. These entities were served with an Administrative Conservation Appearance Ticket (ACAT) that could carry fines as high as $1,000. This operation was coordinated with a press release issued by the Department in order to maximize exposure of this operation and encourage those remaining non-compliers to submit reports.

To enhance direct communications, the Department established a toll-free telephone number (1-888-457-0110) on January 15, 1997 to provide assistance and information to the regulated community and the public. There were 8,877 calls to this number between January 1997 and April 1998.

Data Collection

Various methods were explored to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the data collection. These methods included pilot projects using hand-held computers for data collection, evaluating the use of scannable forms by pesticide applicators and the expanded use of electronic media to file reports. These efforts are being expanded and evaluated further for reporting year 1998.

The following totals represent the compilation of raw data received by the Department and Cornell University. Due to time constraints, the data used to obtain these totals have not been quality assured and represents raw data as it was received. The Department is providing these results for informational purposes only. Please see III.B - Data Qualifications, prior to drawing any conclusions from these totals.

For calendar year 1997, there were 336 different restricted use pesticides sold by Commercial Permittees (Including Importers, Manufacturers and Compounders) to other Commercial Permit Holders for Resale totaling 242,807.00 gallons and 2,387,795.85 pounds.

For calendar year 1997, there were 531 different restricted use pesticides sold by Commercial Permittees (Including Importers, Manufacturers and Compounders) to certified Commercial Applicators for End Use totaling 229,812.10 gallons and 1,073,511.39 pounds.

For calendar year 1997, there were 781 different restricted use pesticides and general use agricultural pesticides sold by Commercial Permittees to certified Private Applicators totaling 475,723.08 gallons and 2,938,233.71 pounds. This total amount of pesticide product was applied to approximately 5.0 million acres of cropland.

For calendar year 1997, approximately 90 percent of the data received was in the form of handwritten reports.

For calendar year 1997, there were 2,698 different pesticide products applied by certified commercial pesticide applicators.

For calendar year 1997, there were 13,771,939.06 pounds and 1,894,222.66 gallons of pesticides applied by certified commercial applicators.

Of the 13,000+ pesticide products registered for use in New York State during calendar year 1997, a maximum of 4,346 were reported as applied or sold by the entities required to report to the Department.

Water Quality Monitoring for Pesticides.

The Pesticide Reporting Law required the Department to develop a Water Quality Monitoring for Pesticides Program that provides data to aid in the effective management of pesticides in the state.

The following are key results of this program's first year's findings:

  • The United States Geological Survey monitored and analyzed surface waters outside of Long Island for a number of pesticides. In general, the USGS results showed that the levels of pesticides in surface waters are consistently lower (in parts per trillion) than drinking water standards. The monitoring also identified areas where further study or continued study is warranted.
  • The USGS program will be expanded in State Fiscal Year 1998-99 to include monitoring of Cayuga Lake and a number of public water supply reservoirs in the western part of the state where independent studies by the USGS and the State Health Department have suggested further monitoring is needed.
  • Monitoring on Long Island confirmed previously known groundwater contamination. The monitoring data included in this report identified levels of some pesticides in individual drinking water wells above drinking water standards. The affected individuals were informed by the applicable county of alternatives for obtaining acceptable drinking water. However, many of these homeowners already have carbon filters on their wells which effectively strip the contaminants from their drinking water.
  • To date, the program has detected two previously unknown contaminant plumes of non-registered pesticides in shallow groundwater on Long Island. The Department has initiated follow-up investigations to assess the extent of these plumes.
  • Detection of pesticides above drinking water standards in past monitoring programs has led the Department to require changes in labeling of products such as Simazine and Dacthal to prohibit certain usage rates and exclude geographical locations that were considered inappropriate. In addition, the detection of certain pesticides and their metabolites (break-down products of chemical decomposition) in this monitoring program has caused the Department to include restrictions regarding their use.
  • The data showing the sensitivity of certain areas of New York confirm the necessity of state-specific pesticide registration decisions to protect the water resources of New York State.

Given these results, the Department believes that the information contained in this report is important in aiding its mission consistent with ECL §33-0714, Water Quality Monitoring for Pesticides. The monitoring provides the Department with a better understanding of the environmental presence of pesticide residues in the state. In turn, this information, in conjunction with other information available to the Department, has immediately been used in making pesticide registration decisions, reviewing suspensions and cancellations of pesticide registrations in the state and assessing the status and trends of pesticide contamination in ground and surface waters.

This monitoring will be continued to assess long-term trends and will be expanded in the future to cover water resources throughout New York State. Next year the program will begin to assess impacts in Cayuga Lake and several public water supply reservoirs.

I. Introduction

This first Annual Report is submitted pursuant to the Environmental Conservation Law ("ECL") §33-1201(2), which requires the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) Commissioner to ". . .prepare an annual report summarizing pesticide sales, quantity of pesticides used, category of applicator and region of application. . . " "The report will be submitted to the governor, the temporary president of the senate and the speaker of the assembly. . . " "The first report will be submitted on July first, nineteen hundred ninety-eight and July first annually thereafter." See Appendix A. As required, the Department, in conjunction with Cornell University, herein summarizes for calendar year 1997 pesticide sales, the quantity of pesticides used, the category of applicator and region of application. This information is provided in the Data Summaries by county and zip code.

As required by law, this report excludes the name, address, or any other information that would otherwise identify a commercial or private applicator, any person who sells or offers for sale restricted use or general use pesticides to a private applicator, or any person who received the services of a commercial applicator.

The Pesticide Reporting Law was an effort partially driven by the desire to evaluate possible links between pesticide use and breast cancer. Both houses of the Legislature passed the Law unanimously and it was signed into law by Governor George E. Pataki on July 8, 1996, becoming effective on January 1, 1997. The Pesticide Reporting Law provides information to help researchers evaluate potential health risks from the use of pesticides. The information notifies communities about the applications and sales of pesticides in their locale. The Pesticide Reporting Law also established the Health Research Science Board to support and fund cancer research. The Public Health Law provisions were subsequently amended to include prostate and testicular cancer research and education.

II. Development and Implementation of the Pesticide Reporting Law, July 1996 - May 31, 1998

A. Department Staffing, Training and Guidance

The pesticide reporting program was provided with a $2.1 million budget for State Fiscal Year 1997-1998. The Department developed an initial fiscal plan for this budget and refined the fiscal plan as the program developed. To implement the program, 21 positions were created and filled. Eleven of these positions were placed in the Central Office in Albany, to handle program start-up and implementation. The remaining ten were geographically dispersed to regions across the state to provide direct assistance to the regulated community in meeting the requirements of this new Law.

During this first year of implementation, the Department, to enhance consistent statewide program delivery, developed and provided information on the Law's compliance issues to regional Department employees. As implementation issues were encountered, additional information was provided throughout the year to Department employees. Central Office staff also developed and provided regional Pesticide Control Specialists with outreach material to use during public presentations.

B. Reporting Form Design and Distribution

A Task Force composed of members representing a broad spectrum of the regulated community was established to provide input to the Department on the development of pesticide reporting forms. Task Force discussions resulted in several iterations of a reporting form being developed and circulated before finalization of the forms that were used. The final forms were developed to optimally consider the diverse needs of the regulated community and the mandated reporting requirements. Approximately 30,000 reporting forms were mailed in January 1997 to every New York State certified commercial applicator, registered pesticide business and commercial permit holder. Appendix B contains the forms for reporting pesticide use and sales for calendar year 1997 and Appendix C contains reporting forms for 1998.

C. Public Outreach and Education

The State Legislature passed the Pesticide Reporting Law with a requirement for prompt implementation. To assure the highest level of compliance possible in this short period of time, the Department placed a primary emphasis on the education of the regulated community about the requirements of the Law. The Department conducted nine workshops in various locations across the state that were attended by over 3,600 participants. The Department participated in 118 outreach opportunities across the state to pesticide user groups and associations, breast cancer advocacy groups, environmental advocacy groups, the public and others. These outreach opportunities reached thousands of interested parties. Also, the Department mass mailed information and forms to all known entities that were impacted by the Law. Appendix D has a listing of the groups addressed and copies of documents that were mailed.

In addition, the Department established communication links with regulated entities through our e-mail address prl@gw.dec.state.ny.us and a toll-free hot line telephone number 1-888-457-0110. This hot line received 8,877 telephone calls between January 1997 and April 1998. Customers could contact the Department, have questions answered, receive forms or conduct other business associated with the pesticide program. Work is progressing on the development of a World Wide Web site that will provide Internet access to Pesticide Reporting Law information, including a copy of the statute, forms that can be printed, a copy of this Annual Report and general guidance materials.

The Department also published, on December 17, 1997, a Technical Administrative Guidance Memorandum (TAGM) that provides guidance and clarifies program issues for Department staff, the public and the regulated community. Additional TAGMs will be written and published as necessary to enhance understanding of and compliance with the Law (See Appendix D, p.D-6).

D. Pilot Projects

Hand-Held Computer (HPC) Data Collection - Pilot Project

The Department conducted a pilot project in the Syracuse area beginning in summer of 1997 to evaluate the use by commercial pesticide applicators and commercial permittees of hand-held data collection computers to collect Pesticide Reporting Law information. The Department, in consultation with the Governor's Office for Technology, conducted this project in order to evaluate the potential benefit to the State and regulated community from direct electronic transfer of pesticide use data into the main Pesticide Reporting Law data base.

On June 30, 1997, a request for bid was published in the New York State Contract Reporter. Seven companies responded to the bid request. After review of the proposed cost amounts and company references, a vendor was selected to conduct the project. The vendor provided the data collection devices, programming services, training and support.

Eight pesticide firms were selected from a list of volunteers to participate in the project. The firms represented a cross-section of the businesses required to report information under the Pesticide Reporting Law.

Pesticide use data recorded on the hand-held devices by the selected firms was brought back to personal computers in their office and uploaded to a data collection site operated by the vendor.

Initial results of the pilot project were promising. Data was successfully uploaded by participants from the hand-held computers into their PC's and then by modem to the data collection site. The majority of participants found the application useful and they provided us with recommendations that would be valuable if such a program were implemented on a statewide basis. Based on these suggestions, the Department will explore this option in greater detail in the future.

Scannable Form Pilot (Intelligent Character/Optical Character Recognition)

The Department also conducted a pilot project in the Buffalo area to evaluate the use of scannable report forms to collect Pesticide Reporting Law information. This pilot was also pursued in consultation with the Governor's Office for Technology, to evaluate the benefits of this method of data capture.

A notice was published in the State Contract Reporterrequesting a vendor to design a scannable pesticide reporting form and run a pilot project to test the feasibility of using these forms. The selected vendor prepared a draft scannable form for the Department's approval.

Six pesticide firms agreed to participate in testing this new scannable report form. An initial meeting was held on October 23, 1997 in East Aurora, New York. The forms and instructions were handed out to the participants with minimal information so that a true test of the forms and instructions could be obtained. A meeting was held on November 6, 1997 in East Aurora to conclude the pilot program and receive comments on the forms (i.e.; design of the form, likes and dislikes, how the new scannable forms compared to existing paper forms, how they compared to electronic reporting methods, would the forms be more useful in a loose form or in bound pads, etc.). The completed forms were then shipped to the vendor for scanning.

The pilot confirmed that use of the new scannable forms would improve readability and accuracy and would provide a level of automation for processing 1998 data. The pilot also demonstrated this reporting method as cost-effective for the state.

Based on comments received, the form was substantially revised. The final form was approved by the Department and two million forms were printed and distributed to New York State registered pesticide businesses for use during the 1998 reporting year. The response to the new forms has been favorable. It is likely that the number of entities using these scannable forms will continue to increase throughout 1998. The scannable form is contained in Appendix C.

E. Data Base Development and Data Entry

The Pesticide Reporting Law requires the Department to ". . .develop a pesticide sales and use computer data base in conjunction with Cornell University. . .Such data base shall consist of all information compiled from reports submitted to the department pursuant to §§33-1205 and 33-1207 of this title. Such reports shall be entered into and maintained on a computerized data base and shall be updated annually." [ECL §33-1201, 1205 and 1207.] (See Appendix A).

On September 9, 1997, a Memorandum of Agreement was executed between Cornell University and the Department for the development of a pesticides sales and use computerized data base.

In compliance with the Law, Cornell University, in conjunction with the Department, developed a computerized pesticide sales and use data base. Consistent with the present legislation, the data base will track the quantities and locations of pesticides applied by commercial applicators. It will also track quantities and application locations of restricted use and agricultural general use pesticides purchased by private applicators and quantities of restricted use pesticides sold by manufacturers in New York State.

Information compiled from reports submitted to the Department was entered into this data base. It was necessary for the Department to contract with a company with expertise in this field to keypunch the reports' data. The Department released a Request for Proposal (RFP), seeking a firm to enter the data on more than 10 million pesticide reporting forms that the Department expected to receive. This number was an estimate arrived at after discussions with representatives of the regulated community. At the time bids were being received for the work, annual report forms were being received from the regulated community. It became apparent that the 10 million estimate was excessive and a new estimate of 2.2 million forms was determined to be more realistic. Because of these disparate numbers, the RFP was declared void and the project was reissued as an Invitation for Bid (IFB). The IFB expressed the Department's expectation to receive information on as many as 17.6 million regulated pesticide actions on approximately 2.2 million copies of three different hard copy paper forms. Lason, Inc., a national data entry firm, was the low bidder and a contract for the data entry work was signed on April 6, 1998. As required by the contract, all of the reports received by the Department as of May 1 were provided to Lason and the information contained on them is included in this report. Information from reports received by the Department after May 1 was not included in this report, but will be included at a later date in the data base where it will used by health researchers, the public, the Department and other groups and associations.

F. Electronic Reporting

The Pesticide Reporting Law allows regulated entities to file ". . .a report or reports . . . with the department on computer diskette or in printed form . . ." [ECL §33-1205]. To assist those entities that desired to submit their pesticide reporting information on computer diskette or via other electronic methods, Cornell University developed draft electronic filing specifications. Numerous discussions were held with Department staff to provide comments on the draft specifications. The Governor's Office for Technology also commented on the draft specifications. Final electronic specifications were submitted by Cornell University on January 15, 1997 and the Department approved these specifications for reporting 1997 data.

The Department sent survey cards to approximately 500 commercial permit holders and 5,000 registered pesticide businesses inquiring as to their interest and capability of reporting 1997 or 1998 data electronically. Cornell University mailed a letter and a copy of their electronic filing specifications to all 168 entities that responded to that survey stating their interest in electronic reporting. The Department refers entities wishing to submit their data electronically to Cornell University for registration, specifications and additional information. Cornell University developed a registration system for those entities wishing to submit data electronically.

Some entities submitted their report forms on computer diskettes. This presented a major challenge to both the Department and Cornell University. The reports were provided using a large variety of software such as Microsoft Excel, Lotus123, ASCII text files, Microsoft Works, Microsoft Access, etc. In order to read each disk, Cornell University needed to have the same software applications as those used by the regulated community. This took an enormous amount of staff time. Even then some files were not accessible. Once the report was opened, it had to be reformatted to the Department's approved electronic specifications so that it could be downloaded into the data base.

G. Forms Revisions

As indicated earlier, three annual report forms were distributed to the regulated community in January 1997 (See Appendix B). Comments were received concerning their format, utility and suggestions for improving the form for the 1998 reporting year. As a result, the Department revised the three annual report forms. A format change occurred with the following two report forms: "Commercial Applicator Annual Report- Pesticides Used" 44-15-26 and "Commercial Permittee Restricted or Agricultural Pesticides Sales Report" 44-15-27. These two reports were reduced to 8.5" x 11", thus standardizing the size of all three reports. (See Section D for discussion on scannable forms). The "Restricted Pesticides Annual Report for Commercial Permittees (Including Importers, Manufacturers and Compounders)" 44-15-25 was originally released in this size format. Also, a larger border was added to the left of these reports to facilitate their use on clipboards. Revisions were made to the titles of all three forms based on review of the draft documents by Department legal counsel. These changes will help clarify the regulatory requirements of the annual reports. To facilitate the reporting of multiple Commercial Applicators by registered pesticide businesses, a new form entitled "List of Commercial Applicators" 44-15-26A has been developed. This form, which gets attached to the "Commercial Applicator Pesticide Use Annual Report" form, lists the names and certification numbers of all of the certified applicators for which the business is reporting.

H. NYSDOH and Health Research Science Board

The Department held many meetings with the State Department of Health in order to ensure a smooth interface between the two Departments regarding the collection and use of the pesticide data for health research purposes. This effort involved the resolution of a number of key issues such as ensuring the confidentiality of the information as it is transferred between the two departments and determining who is a "qualified health researcher."

In addition, these meetings were used to identify issues and prepare briefing documents which the Health Research Science Board (Board) might need when it became operational. Many of these briefings consisted of background documents which described the program's implementation and operation prior to the creation of the Board. These briefings also outlined the issues that the Board could expect to be raised. Additionally, preparatory work was done regarding the duties that the Board was assigned under the Pesticide Reporting Law. The Law requires all State agencies to review their programs and determine whether they have valuable information for researchers engaged in breast, prostate and testicular cancer research. A listing of State agencies with potentially relevant material was developed, as well as a draft survey to be sent to those agencies for use by the Board. These actions enabled the Board to begin their work immediately upon appointment, with very little start up time required.

III. Reporting Data

A. Discussion of Summaries

In conjunction with Cornell University, the Department has summarized for calendar year 1997 pesticide sales, the quantity of pesticides used, the category of applicator and region of application.

For calendar year 1997, there were 336 different restricted use pesticides sold by Commercial Permittees (Including Importers, Manufacturers and Compounders) to other Commercial Permit Holders for Resale totaling 242,807.00 gallons and 2,387,795.85 pounds.

For calendar year 1997, there were 531 different restricted use pesticides sold by Commercial Permittees (Including Importers, Manufacturers and Compounders) to certified Commercial Applicators for End Use totaling 229,812.10 gallons and 1,073,511.39 pounds.

For calendar year 1997, there were 781 different restricted use pesticides and general use agricultural pesticides sold by Commercial Permittees to certified Private Applicators totaling 475,723.08 gallons and 2,938,233.71 pounds.

Detailed information is provided in eight data summaries. These summaries can be found at the Pesticide Sales and Use Reporting: 1997 Report Year Web Site.

  • Data Summary 1 provides the data for 1997 Commercial Applicator pesticide applications in New York State (summarized by product).
  • Data Summary 2 provides the data for 1997 Commercial Applicator pesticide applications in New York State (summarized by county).
  • Data Summary 3 provides the data for 1997 Commercial Applicator pesticide applications in New York State (summarized by zip code) (Parts 1-9).
  • Data Summary 4 provides the data for 1997 Commercial Permittees (Including Importers, Manufacturers and Compounders) Restricted Use Pesticide Sales to Commercial Permit Holders for Resale (summarized by product). These are data summaries of sales made by pesticide sales distributors that are licensed to sell restricted use pesticides, to other pesticide sales distributors who are also licensed to sell restricted use pesticides. The data are summarized by pesticide product.
  • Data Summary 5 provides the data for 1997 Commercial Permittees (Including Importers, Manufacturers and Compounders) Restricted Use Pesticide Sales to Commercial Applicators for End Use (summarized by product). These are data summaries of sales made by pesticide sales distributors that are licensed to sell restricted use pesticides, to commercial pesticide applicators who are licensed to purchase and apply restricted use pesticides. The data are summarized by pesticide product.
  • Data Summary 6 provides the data for 1997 Commercial Permittees Sales of Restricted Use Pesticides and General Use Agricultural Pesticides to Private Applicators (summarized by product). These are data summaries of sales, to certified private applicators, of restricted use pesticides and general use pesticides used in agricultural crop production. These sales were made by pesticide sales distributors that are licensed to sell both restricted use pesticides and general use pesticides identified as being used in agricultural crop production. The data are summarized by pesticide product.
  • Data Summary 7 provides the data for 1997 Commercial Permittees Sales of Restricted Use Pesticides and General Use Agricultural Pesticides to Private Applicators (summarized by county).
  • Data Summary 8 provides the data for 1997 Commercial Permittees Sales of Restricted Use Pesticides and General Use Agricultural Pesticides to Private Applicators (summarized by zip code).

As required by law, these summaries exclude the name, address or any other information that would otherwise identify a commercial or private applicator, any person who sells or offers for sale restricted use or general use pesticides to a private applicator, or any person who received the services of a commercial applicator.

B. Data Qualifications

The Department has developed a pesticide sales and use computer data base in conjunction with Cornell and compiled the information from reports pursuant to ECL §§33-1205 and 33-1207. This data base was used to prepare this annual report summarizing pesticide sales, quantity of pesticides used, category of applicator and regions of application. The data summarizes the information received regarding pesticide sales and usage as reported to the Department by the regulated community. The Department cannot attest to the accuracy of the information contained in these data summaries.

Users of the data are cautioned against the use of the data to draw specific conclusions regarding pesticide sales and use in New York State. Many of the pesticide reports were filed after the February 1, 1998 deadline. Due to the time required to enter and process these data, any reports received after May 1, 1998 have not been entered into the database. Therefore the report tables are incomplete. The complete report tables for 1997 will be available once these data have been entered and verified.

The Department is aware that duplicate data were introduced into the database. Due to time constraints, these duplicated data have not yet been removed from the database.

Pesticide data reported on non-standard forms were accepted by the Department. These forms include old versions of the standard forms, customized forms generated by businesses and applicators and data submitted on non-standard forms. Many of these forms were rejected by the data entry vendor. The Department is working to identify these data using microfilm copies of the forms. Due to time constraints, these data are not included in the report tables at this time, but will be included once quality assurance has been performed.

Some pesticide data submitted on non-standard forms were entered. On these forms the required report fields were not located in the same places as on the standard forms. In many cases the non-standard forms did not include all the required report fields. The data entry operators were forced to search for data that were either not there, located in a different section of the form, or even on separate pages altogether. The quality of these data are not as reliable as the data submitted on the standard forms.

The similarity in design of the 1997 forms entitled "Commercial Permittee Restricted or Agricultural Pesticide Sales Report" and the "Commercial Applicators Annual Report - Pesticides Used" was confusing to the businesses and applicators. Some application data was reported on the sales form and may have been processed as sales data. This has been addressed in the 1998 report forms.

The Law requires the Department to accept data from the regulated community on handwritten forms. These forms accounted for approximately 90 percent of the total number of forms received by the Department. The data on these forms were difficult for the data entry operators to decipher. The quality of these data are not as reliable as data submitted on typed or computer-generated forms.

Usage of zip code to define application and sales locations created a number of problems. Zip codes represent postal delivery locations. Large wilderness areas or farmland may have few if any delivery points. Since mail is not delivered to these locations, they are technically not located in a zip code. Determination of what zip code to report for an application or intended application in one of these locations was problematic for the businesses and applicators.

Some zip codes represent more than one contiguous location. Without more accurate address data than is currently collected, there is no way to divide application or intended application quantities between the separate locations represented by these zip codes.

Data reported for selected zip codes has not been reported under that zip code. These selected zip codes are unique to a location and could be used to identify where an application or intended application occurred. Identification of the specific location of a pesticide application is not allowed by the Pesticide Reporting Law. In these instances, these data have been reported by county; however, if the zip code was located entirely within a single enclosing zip code, the data were reported under that enclosing zip code.

Quantities for some pesticides were reported using both weight and volume-based units of measure. The validation data to determine which type of measurement unit should be used to report that particular pesticide are not currently available in a form applicable to the reported pesticide data. Therefore, the reports list both measurements, as it was reported to the Department.

Products with a quantity of zero reflect that applications or intended applications of the product were made, but that the quantity was indecipherable on the report form. Efforts will be made to obtain this information as the Department and Cornell continue with data quality assurance methods.


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