Department of Environmental Conservation

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Tree and Shrub Descriptions

for State Nursery-Raised Seedlings

The Nursery will resume sales on January 3, 2017.

Conifer Species

All species available in units of 25 for $20 or 100 for $45. Some offered in units of 250 (as noted). Minimum seedling height 6". See Nursery Stock Availability page for status of availability since some species sell out quickly.

Austrian Pine

Latin name: Pinus nigra
Height: 50 to 80 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well-drained soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Dense pyramidal shape when young, becoming more open and flat-topped with age. Shiny dark green stiff needles, 3 inches to 5 inches long, sharp tipped, arranged in bundles of 2. Cones stiff, 2 to 3 inches long. Bark dark gray brown becoming deeply furrowed.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Christmas trees, windbreak, pulp.
Interesting Facts: Native of Europe, popular for landscape planting because more tolerant of heavy soils and pollution than many native pines.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. European source. Minimum height 4". 25/$20, 100/$45.

Pitch Pine

Latin name: Pinus rigida
Height: 40 to 60 feet
Width: 20 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow
Site Requirements: Full sun, well drained soil. Does well on dry rocky sites and in sterile sandy soils. Grows well in coastal areas and sand dunes.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Form rounded and conical when young, becoming open with age. On better sites can grow long straight trunk, and symmetrical shape. On sites with sterile or rocky soil, often gets very craggy and picturesque with age. Foliage yellowish- green, needles in bundles of three, 2 to 5 inches long. Cones reddish brown, 2 to 3 inches long, very stiff, with distinct spine on each cone scale. Cones persistent, sometimes remaining on tree for several years. Bark gray-brown, becoming rough and platy with age. Needles may sprout directly from bark, a unique trait that is part of pitch pine's fire adaptation.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals. Bark eaten by porcupines.
Uses: Primarily used for coastal planting and restoration of inland pine barrens such as the Albany Pine Bush. Formerly used as a source of pitch and turpentine. Rot-resistant wood once used for boat-building and railroad ties.
Interesting Facts: Highly fire-adapted, the key tree species in Northeastern coastal and inland pine barrens.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Minimum height 6". Albany or LI strain. 25/$20, 100/$45 and 250/$65.

Red Pine

red pine needles and cone
red pine needles and cone

Latin name: Pinus resinosa
Height: 50 to 80 feet
Width: 30 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Does well on sterile sandy soils.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Form rounded and conical with dense foliage when young, becoming more open with age. Develops very long straight trunk, especially in plantations. Needles dark green, in bundles of two. Cone reddish- brown, 2 to 3 inches long, stiff with thickened scale tips. Attached directly to branches, persistent. Bark reddish, becoming gray, platy and flaking with age.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals. Bark eaten by porcupines.
Uses: Poles, Christmas trees, lumber, pulp.
Interesting Facts: One of the primary reforestation species during early to mid 20th century. Ability to grow in dry sandy soil led to widespread planting of red pine for reclamation of abandoned and ruined farmland. These pine plantations stabilized the soil and provided shelter for eventual regeneration of hardwoods. Long straight trunks of plantation trees made outstanding poles for telephone lines, log buildings and pole construction. Also widely planted around reservoirs for water quality protection.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45, 250/$65.

Scotch Pine

Latin name: Pinus sylvestris
Height: 30 to 60 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Rounded conical form with dense foliage when young, growing more open with age. Foliage bluish-green. Needles in bundles of two, 1 ½ inches to 3 inches long, thick and twisted. Cones small and stiff, 1 to 2 inches long. Bark red-brown, scaly when young, becoming grayer and furrowed with age. Older trees very distinctive because upper trunk and limbs are reddish and lower trunk is gray. Danish or Boonville Strain.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals. Bark eaten by porcupines.
Uses: Christmas trees, windbreak, pulp.
Interesting Facts: Has become one of the top Christmas tree species because of long-lasting needles and dense sturdy foliage.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. New York orchard; Boonville or Danish strain. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45, 250/$65.

Jack Pine

Latin name: Pinus banksiana
Height: 25 to 50 feet
Width: 20 to 35 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Full sun. Well drained soil. Does well in sandy, sterile soils and on dry, rocky sites. Extremely hardy boreal species. In northern New York State, the southern edge of its natural range, it grows in sandstone pavement barrens.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Habit dense and conical when young, becoming open and irregular with age. Foliage yellowish green, needles in bundles of two, often twisted and ¾ to 1 ½ inches long, the shortest of any eastern pine. Cones 1 ½ to 2 inches long, noticeably curved when closed. Cones point toward branch tips. Cones are green ripening to brown, and may remain on tree for years, eventually turning silvery grey. Cones often serotinous, remaining closed until opened by heat. Like its southern counterpart, pitch pine, jack pine is dependent on periodic fire for natural regeneration. May start producing cones when only 4 or 5 years old.
Wildlife Value: Seeds eaten by many birds and squirrels. Browsed by deer and rabbits. Host to many species of moths and butterflies. Cover and nest habitat for many species.
Uses: Lumber and pulpwood. Occasionally grown for Christmas trees. Because of the short needles, it is sometimes grown as a bonsai.
Interesting Facts: In Michigan, Wisconsin and southern Ontario, the federally endangered Kirtland's warbler depends on jack pine stands for nest sites. Recently this species was seen in New York for the first time, during a migratory stopover at Hamlin Beach on Lake Ontario.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Minimum height 6". 25/$20 Only

White Pine

Latin name: Pinus strobus
Height: 60 to 100 feet
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Rounded conical shape with dense foliage when young, becoming more open with age. Straight long trunk. Foliage bluefish-green, soft looking. Needles in bundles of five, very thin, 3 to 5 inches long. Cones narrow and flexible, 4 to 8 inches long with thick tipped scales. Bark dark gray-brown, smooth when young, becoming rough and furrowed with age.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites, especially for larger birds. Height and open branches on old trees make white pine a prime species for large raptor nests. Large diameter of trunk especially valuable as nest site for pileated woodpeckers. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals. Bark eaten by porcupines.
Uses: Lumber, pulp, poles, windbreak. Used for furniture, paneling and boat planking. Soft white wood is prized by carvers because it cuts and sands cleanly without any fuzzing.
Interesting Facts: In colonial times, tall straight white pines marked by British as king's pines to reserve them for use as masts by royal navy ships. Tallest-growing tree species in Northeast growing to 120 feet tall and with trunks up to 4 feet in diameter. Most valuable timber species in historic times, used for almost every purpose.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45, 250/$65.

Norway Spruce

Norway spruce forest
Norway spruce forest

Latin name: Picea abies
Height: 60 to 100 feet.
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Fast to medium.
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist, well drained soil. Tolerates very wide range of soil types.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer. Conical shape, older trees with long upswept branches. Dark green needles, ¾ inch to 1 inch long, four sided with sharp tip. Leaf scar is a raised woody peg. Cone red-brown, very large, 6 inches to 8 inches long with thin stiff scales. Bark gray-brown, smooth when young, becoming rough and platy with age.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Lumber, windbreak, Christmas trees, pulp. Soft, light wood is valued for soundboards of musical instruments.
Interesting Facts: Big outdoor Christmas trees, such as those at Rockefeller Center, are often Norway spruce. Grows very large, and is most widely planted spruce for windbreaks and plantations.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45, 250/$70.

White Spruce

Latin name: Picea glauca
Height: 40 to 60 feet
Width: 15 to 20 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Hardy to zone 2. Does not like shade.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Full pyramidal shape when young, growing to tall narrow conical form. Foliage dull blue-green. Sharp-tipped, four-sided needles ½ inch to ¾ inch long, pointing upward. Cones brown with wavy scales, 1 ½ inches to 2 inches long. Bark brown to grayish brown, becoming rough and flaky.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Lumber, windbreak, pulp, Christmas trees.
Interesting Facts: Inner bark is silvery white, hence the name white spruce.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45, 250/$70.

Balsam Fir

Latin name: Abies balsamea
Height: 40 to 70 feet
Width: 20 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist well drained soil. Prefers cool conditions.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Conical shape with narrow crown. Needles ¾ inch long, dark green, with rounded ends, very fragrant. Leaf scar round and flat. Cones upright, 2 to 3 inches long, disintegrate on tree leaving persistent central spike. Bark gray-brown, smooth with
blisters filled with fragrant resin.
Wildlife Value: wildlife cover, foliage and buds eaten by deer, seeds eaten by birds and squirrels.
Uses: Christmas trees, wreaths, pulpwood and lumber.
Interesting Facts: Traditional Christmas tree species long prized for its wonderful fragrance. Resin from bark, known as Canada Balsam, formerly used as optical adhesive for glass lenses and microscope slides.
Seedling size, source and cost: 3 year seedling. New York source. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45. Limited Supply

Douglas Fir

Latin name: Pseudotsuga menziesii
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist well drained soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Dense foliage when young, becoming tall open and conical with age. Foliage often grayish green to blue-green, needles 1 inch to 1 ½ inch long. Cones oval, light brown, 3 to 4 inches long, with long tongue-like bracts hanging out between the scales.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by birds and rodents.
Uses: Christmas trees , lumber, pulp. Popular as Christmas tree because of long-lasting attractive foliage.
Interesting Facts: Native to western U.S., grows very tall and large in coastal forests and is major timber species in Pacific Northwest, and in the Rocky Mountains.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2+ year seedling. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45, 250/$75.

Japanese Larch

Latin name: Larix kaempferi
Height: 70 to 90 feet
Width: 25 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Hardy to zone 4.
Physical Description: Deciduous conifer tree. Conical open habit with soft blue-green foliage. Turns yellow in fall, then drops needles. Soft flexible needles 1 to 1 ½ inches long, bright to dark green, arranged in whorls of 40 or more on short woody spurs. Twigs brown, usually with hairs. Cones stiff, oval, 1 to 1 ½ inches long with scales turned upward, giving effect of a rosette. Bark thin and grayish brown, becoming rough and furrowed with age.
Wildlife Value: Seeds eaten by birds and rodents. Provides cover and nest sites for birds.
Uses: Lumber, pulp. Strong heavy rot-resistant wood used for construction, poles, railroad ties.
Interesting Facts: Grows faster than European larch and is slightly more heat tolerant. The rose-shaped cones and blue-green foliage are the easiest way to distinguish it from European larch.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. New York orchard. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45. Very limited supply.

European Larch

Latin name: Larix decidua
Height: 60 to 80 feet
Width: 25 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Fast to medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Hardy to zone 3.
Physical Description: Deciduous conifer tree. Conical open habit with soft green foliage. Turns yellow in fall, then drops needles. Soft flexible needles 1 to 1 ½ inches long, bright to dark green, arranged in whorls of 30 to 40 on short woody spurs. Twigs gray to yellowish, furrowed, without hair. Cones stiff, oval, 1 to 1 ½ inches long with wavy edged scales. Cones often persist for several seasons, and old silvery cones may be present alongside new brown cones. Bark thin and grayish brown, becoming rough and furrowed with age.
Wildlife Value: Seeds eaten by birds and rodents. Provides cover and nest sites for birds.
Uses: Lumber, pulp. Strong heavy rot-resistant wood used for construction, poles, railroad ties. One of the top lumber species in Europe, usually grown in plantations.
Interesting Facts: Makes a good nurse tree for shade tolerant hardwood species.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. New York orchard. Minimum height 6". 25/$20, 100/$45. Very limited supply.

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Hardwood Species

All species available in units of 25 for $30, 100 for $66 except as noted. Height: 5" - 14". New York source when available. See Nursery Stock Availability page for status of availability since some species sell out quickly.

American Hazelnut

Latin name: Corylus americana
Height: 5 to 15 feet
Width: 5 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial sun. Soil dry to moist. Well drained soil preferable, but will grow at wetland margins with seasonal flooding. Also grows on dry rocky slopes.
Physical Description: Deciduous multi-stemmed shrub. Dense compact canopy. Slender flexible stems with smooth grayish brown bark. Leaves alternate, 2 to 4 inches long, roughly oval, with coarse double-toothed margin. Leaves dark green above, lighter green below. Leaf stems and leaf undersides hairy. Fall color is excellent, often a coppery orange, but also many shades of red and yellow. Male and female flowers on the same plant. Male catkins 1-2 inches long, in clusters of 2 or 3 at tips of branches. Female flowers tiny and vivid red, located lower on branches, open early spring. Nuts form in clusters of 1 to 6. Each nut enclosed in pair of light green leafy bracts. A cluster of 4 or 5 nuts looks almost like a fist-sized ruffled head of lettuce. Bracts eventually turn brown, and open to release the ½ inch nuts.
Wildlife Value: Nuts eagerly sought by many wildlife species. Catkins and buds important winter food source for grouse. Browsed by rabbits and deer. Host to over 100 moth and butterfly species.
Uses: Wildlife planting, riparian restoration, native food plant. Often grows naturally along fence lines with other native shrubs, suggesting its use for mixed hedges or windbreaks. An outstanding native shrub for native plant gardens, compact enough for most yards. Plants may begin bearing nuts when they are only 2 years old, and 2 or 3 feet tall. The little nuts are delicious, and can be used just like commercial European hazelnuts/filberts.
Interesting Facts: Hybrid hazelnut crosses are being developed between the disease-prone European hazelnuts and disease-resistant American hazelnuts. These hybrids are becoming popular in agroforestry as a sustainable way to grow evaluable nut crops in cooler climates.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66

Bitternut Hickory

Latin name: Carya cordiformis
Height: 50 to 75 feet
Width: 20 to 35 feet
Growth Rate: medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Soil moist, well drained. Will grow on limestone soils. Tolerates seasonal flooding. Often grows on floodplains with species such as eastern sycamore.
Physical Description: Large deciduous tree. Long straight trunk, upright shape, bark gray, slightly rough and furrowed on mature trees. Alternate compound leaves with 7 to 11 leaflets, upper surface glossy medium green. Leaflets long and narrow with finely toothed margins. Fall color brilliant lemon yellow, sometimes more sulfur yellow like shagbark. The fine texture of the glossy foliage with its pointed leaflets is much like ash. Leaf buds are a distinctive sulfur yellow. Nuts have thin yellow-green husks, with four wings on the top half. Husks split open part way. Fresh husks are easily torn open and have citrus fragrance. Nuts are relatively large with four ridges and distinct "shoulders." They have thin hulls and large kernels, which are bitter with tannin. Less of a litter problem than shagbark because of less frequent heavy nut crops, and thin, easily crushed nuts.
Wildlife Value: Nuts are eaten by wildlife. Trees provide cover and nest sites. Host plant for numerous butterfly and moth species.
Uses: Refined foliage, comparatively smooth bark and tall straight trunk quite different in appearance from other hickories. Can be mistaken for ash. Beautiful specimen tree for urban parks and larger yards. Has taproot like other hickories, but develops extensive lateral roots, giving it high resistance to wind throw. Potential for reducing stream bank erosion. Excellent large tree for riparian restoration and stream buffers.
Interesting Facts: Dense heavy wood can be used for traditional hickory specialties such as tool handles. Considered to have best wood of hickory species for smoke flavored foods.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30 Only

Black Locust - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Robinia pseudoacacia
Height: 50 to 80 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Able to grow in very poor soils
Physical Description: Deciduous tree with 6-14"-long pinately compound leaves. with thick, deeply furrowed blackish bark. Leaflet is 1-2" long and ¾" wide and elliptic, blue/green above and paler underneath. Autumn color yellow. ¼-1/2" spines on branches in pairs at each leaf node. A member of the pea family. 4-8" long white very fragrant flower clusters in late spring to early summer. Honey- or vanilla-like scent. 2-4" long brown papery, flattened seed pods persist into spring. ¼" kidney-shaped seeds. Early colonizer of disturbed areas. Native to the Appalachian mountains.but has spread far beyond. It spreads by underground shoots.
Uses: Because of the hard, rot-resistant wood, grown for fence posts and occasionally other wood products. The lumber is one of the heaviest and hardest in North America. Widely used for erosion control and reforestation, black locust is ideally suited for woody biomass plantings, and commercial energy production may eventually become one of its primary uses in the U.S. Its virtues include nitrogen fixing ability, inexpensive propagation by seed, rapid vegetative propagation, adaptability to a wide range of site conditions, rapid juvenile growth, high heat content of the wood, and prolific regrowth after cutting survives droughts and severe winters, tolerates infertile and acidic soils. Popular as a street tree. Black locust is highly valued as firewood for wood-burning stoves; it burns slowly, with little visible flame or smoke, and has a higher heat content than any other species that grows widely in the Eastern United. States Black locust is a major honey plant in the eastern US, and, having been taken and planted in France, is the source of the renowned acacia monofloral honey from France. Attracts pollinating insects.
Interesting Facts: Only native nitrogen-fixing tree in NY. Locust leaves droop and fold up at night and in cloudy weather.
Note: Black locust, because of its fast growth habit and adaptability, is considered a weedy and invasive tree. It should not be planted in or near pine barren or pine bush habitats.
Seedling size and cost: 1 year seedling. Height 5"-14".

Black Walnut

Latin name: Juglans nigra
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 30 to 60 feet
Growth Rate: Medium fast
Site Requirements: sun, deep moist well drained soil
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Often has rather short trunk and open spreading branches. Compound leaves, 12 to 24 inches long with 10 to 24 narrow leaflets. Terminal leaflet often absent. Nuts almost round, about 1 inch long covered with thick husk. Unripe nuts have green husk and are perfectly round 1 ½ inch spheres. Husk turns brown and begins to disintegrate when nuts are ripe. Bark dark brown with narrow ridges.
Wildlife Value: Rich oily nutmeats are high calorie food for squirrels who open the nuts, and also for birds who clean out the shells.
Uses: Primary use is lumber from the valuable dark brown heartwood. Prized for furniture. Nuts are used for baking. Nut husks were once an important source of brown dye. Ripe nut husks will stain hands.
Interesting Facts: Spreads very readily where there are nut-bearing trees, because squirrels bury so many of the nuts.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

Butternut, also known as white walnut

Latin name: Juglans cinerea
Height: 40 to 60 feet
Width: 20 to 35 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: sun, deep moist well drained soil
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Rather open branching habit. Large compound leaves, 15 to 25 inches long, with 7 to 17 oval leaflets. Has single terminal leaflet. Nuts oblong, 1 to 1 ½ inches long with very rough ridged shell with a thick husk. Nutmeat is sweet and oily. Bark lightish gray with distinctive diamond shaped ridges.
Wildlife Value: The very rich nutmeat is valuable food for wildlife. Many birds will clean out nuts originally opened by squirrels.
Uses: Rich sweet nuts used for baking. Lumber light golden brown, takes very fine finish, used for cabinetry and paneling.
Interesting Facts: Can be distinguished from the very similar black walnut by leaves with fewer wider leaflets, oval husks and differences in the leaf scars.
Note: Butternut is susceptible to butternut canker, a disease caused by the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum. Although butternut has almost disappeared in some states, it is still an important component of New York's forests. Some trees have shown some resistance to the disease and efforts are underway to develop resistant strains of butternut. It is important to keep planting butternut in order to save this beautiful species. The more seedlings which are planted, the better the chances of finding resistant individuals. For more information on butternut canker, please see the link in the Links Leaving DEC's Website at the top, right-hand side of this page.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

Buckeye

Ohio or Yellow
Latin name:
Aesculus glabra or Aesculus flava
Height: 40-60 feet
Width: 30-40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Deep rich moist soil with good drainage. Full sun on sites with good moisture. Partial shade preferable on drier sites. A good choice for riparian sites.
Physical Description: Native deciduous tree. Resembles European horse chestnut, which is in the same genus. Rounded crown, rather short trunk. Branches may turn up at ends. Big stout twigs with large terminal buds. Leaves are palmately compound with five leaflets, each 3 to 6 inches long, oval shaped with pointed tips, and finely toothed margins. Fall color bright yellows and oranges. Leafs out early in spring. Flowers yellow to yellow green in upright clusters. Beautiful glossy brown seeds are very large, 1 inch to 1 ½ inch in diameter and enclosed in leathery husks. Ohio buckeye has a prickly husk with a single seed, and yellow buckeye has a smooth husk containing 1 to 3 seeds.
Wildlife Value: Seeds eaten by squirrels. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Light, fine textured wood good for carving. Commercial wood use mostly for pulp.
Interesting Facts: Seeds and foliage toxic due to high tannin content. Should not be planted where livestock can eat foliage or seeds. Protein-rich seeds used for food by Native Americans after careful soaking to leach out toxins. Seeds have been used as lucky charms, toys and slingshot ammunition. It is next to impossible to resist picking up the wonderfully smooth seeds.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Ohio or Yellow. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

Paper Birch, also known as canoe birch

Latin name: Betula papyrifera
Height: 30 to 60 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist well drained soil. Does not like heat.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Open conical form, sometimes multi-stemmed, but can develop substantial single trunk. Leaves ovate to heart shaped with double toothed margin. Leaves turn bright yellow in fall. Male catkins noticeable on winter twigs. Seeds in 1 inch long papery cones which disintegrate on the tree in winter, shedding the seeds. Bark is dark brown and shiny on young trees, becomes chalky white and peeling on older trees. Inner bark is light orange.
Wildlife Value: Seeds, buds and catkins eaten by many birds and small mammals. Foliage browsed by deer.
Uses: Lumber, pulp, veneer and plywood. Dimension lumber and birch plywood valuable for furniture. Also good firewood. Much planted for its stunning white bark.
Interesting Facts: Famed for its use in Native American birchbark canoes. Bark was peeled as single sheet from large tree and used inside out as canoe hull. Shaping was done by cutting and sewing seams to achieve proper canoe form. Because the bark was so strong, only light interior framing was needed to hold the shape. Seams were caulked with pitch and other materials to make the hull watertight. Europeans were astounded at the light weight, strength and maneuverability of birchbark canoes.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Average height 5"-14". New York source. 25/$30 only.

Gray Birch

Latin name: Betula populifolia
Height: 20 to 30 feet
Width: 5 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Does well on sterile sandy sites.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Rounded to irregular form, often with multiple trunks. Leaves narrow triangular with rounded base, margins doubled toothed. Seed in papery 1 inch long cones. Bark light gray to white, may look similar to paper birch but does not peel.
Wildlife Value: Seeds, buds and catkins eaten by many birds and small mammals. Foliage browsed by deer.
Uses: Pulp, small dimension lumber. Good restoration species for poor sites with sterile soil.
Interesting Facts: Pioneer species in northern areas, one of the first trees to colonize burned areas.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Average height 5"-14". New York source. 25/$30 only.

Yellow Birch - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Betula alleghaniensis
Height: 60 to 100 feet
Width: 40 to 70 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, cool, moist, well-drained soil. Does not like heat. Tolerant of seasonal flooding. Primarily a tree of northern forests but will grow in cool sites such as shaded ravines and wooded swamps, south of its primary range.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree with straight single trunk, 1 to 3 feet in diameter. Broad spreading crown. Largest native birch species, and one of largest northeastern hardwoods. Leaves dark green, often somewhat fuzzy, 3 to 5 inches long oval with sharp point and double-toothed margin. Young trees have shiny smooth bark with horizontal lenticels similar to that of sweet birch but color is gold or greenish gold. Mature trees have beautiful, shining pale gold bark that peels in thin delicate curls. Older trees may have rougher grey platy bark on the trunk, but the upper limbs will still show the distinctive peeling golden bark. Slender light brown twigs have wintergreen smell when broken, but less strong than that of sweet birch. Male flower slender inch long hanging catkin, female flower 5/8 inch upright cone. Seed ripens in fall. Fine bright yellow fall foliage color.
Wildlife Value: Catkins and seeds valuable winter food for many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Valuable timber tree, source of most commercial birch lumber. A magnificent tree for parks or large yards, also valuable for riparian (streamside) planting on cooler sites. Does well on swampy sites.
Interesting Facts: Long-lived, exceptionally so for a birch. Can live over 300 years and reach trunk diameters of more than 4 feet. Depending on soil depth, yellow birch can develop an extensive deep root system or a widespread lateral root system. On shallow soils or wet swampy soils, yellow birch may develop intricate network of gleaming gold surface roots. Trees which initially sprouted on top of large boulder will often have photogenic cascade of surface roots.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Average height 5"-14". New York source.

Sweet Birch, Black Birch - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Betula lenta
Height: 40 to 50 feet
Width: 35 to 45 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade. Soil medium to moist, well drained. Does well on upland sites. Tolerates alkaline soil better than most birches.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree, single straight trunk, stout lower limbs, and rounded crown. Young trees have smooth, sometimes shiny, dark brown to dark grey bark, with light colored, horizontal lenticels. Bark of young black birch can be mistaken for that of cherry. Older trees develop distinctive irregular plates of blackish bark. Leaves 2 to 4 inches long, oval with sharp tip, margins finely toothed, dark green with lighter underside. Slender reddish brown twigs have wintergreen odor when broken, also delicious wintergreen taste. Fall foliage is bright yellow. Trees have male and female catkins in spring, later develop cone-like seed structures.
Wildlife Value: High. Seeds, buds and catkins eaten by many birds and small mammals. Foliage browsed by deer.
Uses: Dimension lumber, pulpwood and firewood. Once used as primary source of wintergreen flavoring. Fast-growing, early succession tree, good for reforestation and reclamation. Sweet birch seedlings one of few species able to grow through fern understory. Makes nice shade tree for parks or large yards, more pest-resistant and heat tolerant than most birches. Best birch for bright fall color.
Interesting Facts: Source of birch beer. Sap can be tapped and boiled down to syrup for flavoring or fermented to make beer. Wintergreen flavored twigs nice to chew on.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". New York source.

River Birch - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Betula nigra
Height: 30 to 60 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade. Soil well drained to wet. Natural habitat is stream banks and floodplains. Tolerant of many site types
Physical Description: Medium tree, often multi-stemmed. Young trees have spectacular multi-colored peeling bark in warm shades of tan, brown, pink and cream. Large old trees develop grey, flaky bark on lower trunks. Twigs reddish brown, smooth. Unlike yellow birch or black birch, river birch twigs do not have wintergreen odor when cut. Leaves alternate, 1.5 to 3 inches long, glossy green above and lighter and fuzzy beneath. The leaves often have an almost rhombic outline with wedge-shaped base, rather than the oval shape of other large birch species. Leaf margins are noticeably double-toothed. Blooms in early spring with separate male and female catkins. Seed ripens in cone-shaped catkin in late spring.
Wildlife Value: Birches are valuable for wildlife as leaf and twig browse, for seeds, and for the catkins which are valuable winter food for grouse and turkey.
Uses: Popular showy native ornamental which is attractive all year around. Good native alternative for introduced species such as paperbark maple. Valuable species for riparian restoration and buffer areas. Also used for reclamation planting. Increasingly popular for landscape use because of beauty and easy care.
Interesting Facts: Very heat tolerant for a birch, and is less likely to suffer from borers and leaf miners than paper birch. Has most southerly range of large birch species and is well adapted to hot summers. For example, paper birch is a cold climate boreal species and does poorly in hot climates. Yellow birch is a northern hardwood species which thrives in the Adirondacks, but is restricted to cooler sites, such as hardwood swamps or mountains, in the southern part of the state.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Average height 5"-14". New York source.

Black Cherry

Latin name: Prunus serotina
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 20 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Fast to medium
Site Requirements: Full sun, deep, moist well drained soil. On good sites black cherry can grow very large, with a long straight trunk.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Dense pyramidal form when young, developing more drooping branches with age. Leaves shiny, finely toothed, oval shaped with pointed tip. Fall color often in shades of reds and oranges. Small white flowers in narrow, hanging clusters followed by small reddish black, sweet berries. Bark on young trees smooth shiny dark gray brown with prominent horizontal lenticels. Older bark very distinctive blackish flakes resembling burnt potato chips.
Wildlife Value: Stems browsed by deer and rabbits. Fruit eaten by many birds and mammals. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Heartwood is beautiful reddish brown color, hard and strong. Used for furniture, veneer and dimensional lumber.
Interesting Facts: One of our most valuable hardwoods and prized since colonial times for fine furniture.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

Hybrid Poplar

Latin name: Populus deltoides x Populus sp. (Eastern cottonwood crosses with other poplar species)
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. The cottonwood parent is a riparian species and grows in floodplain areas.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Upright, somewhat spreading habit. Leaves large rounded triangle shape like cottonwood, 2 to 5 inches long. Bark variable, usually light gray brown.
Wildlife Value: Shoots and leaves provide browse for deer and rabbits. Cover and nest sites for birds. Soft wood on old trees is easily excavated by woodpeckers for nest cavities.
Uses: Pulp, biofuel, windbreaks
Interesting Facts: Extremely fast growing, and can be coppiced for fuel crops.
Seedling size and cost: 1 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$20, 100/$56.

Red Maple also known as swamp maple or soft maple - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Acer rubrum
Height: 40 to 60 feet
Width: 30 to 40 feet
Growth Rate: Medium fast
Site Requirements: Sun and moist well drained soil for best growth. Will grow on wide range of sites, particularly tolerant of wet conditions. Often found in wooded swamps, but will also grow on upland sites.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Conical to rounded crown, dense foliage. Leaves 2 to 5 inches across, usually 3 to 5 lobes, but typically 3-lobed. Margin usually toothed. Backs of leaves are light colored, often silvery white. Fall color mostly shades of red, also bright yellow, rarely shades of orange. Early spring flowers are red as are the ripening seeds. Samaras small and v-shaped. Young trees have smooth pale gray bark, becoming gray brown and rough on older trees.
Wildlife Value: Valuable browse for deer, good nest site for many birds, especially those which nest near wetlands. Seed, buds and twigs eaten by squirrels. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Excellent riparian tree, but tough and adaptable enough for many urban uses. Also used for lumber and pulp.
Interesting Facts: Best known for its brilliant red in fall, especially in swamps. Has remarkable range of reds, including an improbable shade of fluorescent pink-red. Whitish leaf undersides noticeable and attractive when foliage stirred by breeze.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14".

Silver Maple

Latin name: Acer saccharinum
Height: 50 to 75 feet
Width: 40 to 60 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil, but can withstand periodic flooding. Very tolerant of a wide range of site conditions.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Rounded conical form when young, becoming more open with age. Typically develops short massive trunk with long heavy main branches. Younger branches rather slender and flexible, may sweep upward at ends. Distinctive in winter because of clumps of round flower buds on ends of branches. Leaves 2 to 5 inches wide, 3 to 5 lobes, very deeply lobed with coarse teeth, leaf backs silvery-white. Fall color is light yellow. Samaras wide v-shaped, up to 2 ½ inches wide. Bark smooth, light gray on young trees. Becomes shaggy and furrowed on older trees.
Wildlife Value: Deer browse, seeds and buds eaten by squirrels. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Riparian restoration. Fast-growing shade tree for large urban spaces, brownfield sites and floodplains. Was widely planted as street tree because of fast growth and tolerance of urban conditions, but proved to be too large for most streets, also brittle in ice storms. With an adequate space well away from power lines, it can still be a fine urban tree if it is properly pruned when young to encourage strong branching structure.
Interesting Facts: Largest seeds of any native maple. Unique lacy foliage and long sweeping branches.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year height: 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66 Limited supply.

Sugar Maple - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Acer saccharum
Height: 50 to 75 feet
Width: 30 to 45 feet
Growth Rate: Slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade; prefers deep, moist, well drained soil. For best growth, avoid dry hot sites and very wet sites.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Conical to round crown; dense foliage. Leaves are 3 to 6 inches, opposite, simple leaf with 3 to 5 lobes. Fall color: yellow,orange,and red tones, the widest color range of any tree. Small greenish yellow flowers in early spring. Fruit is a two-winged horseshoe shaped samara. Bark is variable, but usually grayish brown. May be furrowed on older trees.
Wildlife Value: Deer browse the branches. Squirrels feed on the seeds, buds, twigs, and foliage. Birds nest in trees. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: The sap is the principal source of maple sugar. The wood is used for flooring, furniture, and veneer.
Interesting Facts: Sugar maple is the New York State tree. The wood sometimes has unique patterns such as a "birdseye" or "curly" figures making the wood highly prized. Although it has more specific site requirements than many other maple species, sugar maple is one of our most valuable trees for its superb fall color, maple syrup production, and fine lumber.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14".

Bear Oak

Latin name: Quercus ilicifolia
Height: 6 to 20 feet
Width: 6 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow
Site Requirements: Full sun. Well-drained soil. Grows in pine barrens, and on dry rocky slopes. Very drought tolerant. Prefers slightly acidic soil, but has been observed growing on dry limestone ridges.
Physical Description: Small tree or multi-stemmed shrub. May develop multiple stems from and form spreading shrub, especially after disturbance such as fire or logging. Tree form apt to be craggy and irregular, and individual trees can be quite picturesque, especially on rocky sites. Leaves are 3 to 5 inches long, have a few simple pointed lobes with sharp tips, and are rather thick and stiff. The upper surface is very glossy and dark green. The lower surface is conspicuously lighter, pale green to white, and slightly fuzzy. The leaves are densely arranged on thin angular branches, often with numerous small acorns. Bear oak is one of the red oaks and the bitter acorns take two years to mature. Can produce heavy crops of acorns. Fall color usually vivid orange or dark red. Dark grey bark and irregular horizontal branching, often with persistent acorns, provides winter interest. Considerable landscape potential for dry sites with full sun.
Wildlife Value: Excellent food and cover for many wildlife species. Acorns especially valuable food source for turkey and grouse. An important food plant for many butterfly and moth species.
Uses: Wildlife, restoration planting. Many potential uses in drought- resistant landscaping. Distinctive small specimen tree, which can develop bonsai-like appearance with age.
Interesting Facts: Can re-sprout very rapidly after fire. Although shrub oak species are common in the west and in the south, bear oak is one of the two shrub oak species native to the northeast. In pine barren communities, it is the primary scrub oak species and can form dense stands.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

Bur Oak - not available in 2017

Latin name: Quercus macrocarpa
Height: 60 to 80 feet
Width: 40 to 70 feet
Growth Rate: Slow
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Tolerates drought, will grow on limestone soils.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Develops rangy, open form with long trunk and wide spreading branches. Older trees can be very striking with their long, shaggy looking, massive branches, corky twigs and long thick trunks. Leaves are 4 to 8 inches long with rounded lobes and often have very deep sinuses in the middle of the leaf, giving it a characteristic narrow "waist". Acorns mature in one year, 1 to 1 ½ inches long and 1 inch wide, with deep shaggy caps. Bark brown, scaly becoming darker and strongly ridged with age.
Wildlife Value: The huge sweet acorns are so popular with wildlife that it is a challenge to find any to plant.
Uses: Strong, heavy, rot-resistant wood used for flooring, beams, railroad ties. Similar to white oak, but not commonly seen. A very tolerant urban tree for parks and other larger areas.
Interesting Facts: The acorns are the largest of those of the North American oaks.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14".

Chestnut Oak

Latin name: Quercus montana (synonym Quercus prinus)
Height: 60 to 70 feet
Width: 40 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Soil well drained, moist to dry. Very drought tolerant. Does well in acid sandy soils, but tolerant of many soil types. Can grow on extremely poor, dry, rocky sites.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree with straight trunk and dense crown. Member of white oak group with rounded teeth on leaves and acorns which ripen in one year. Leaves 4 to 7 inches, oval, or with wider top, in shape. Large rounded teeth give margin a wavy look. Tops of leaves yellowish green to dark green, and very shiny. Undersides lighter green, but not white. Fall color often bright yellow, but also many shades of orange to red.
Large acorns, 1 to 1 ½ inches long, with thin rough cap. Thick bark deeply furrowed with broad ridges, even on relatively small trees. Often grows on dry rocky sites, hence the name rock oak. Trees on extremely dry rocky ridges are smaller and may have crooked trunks, but their ability to survive drought is remarkable. When the foliage of other trees is getting dry and wilted, chestnut oak leaves still look fresh and glossy.
Wildlife Value: Large sweet acorns are prized by wildlife.
Uses: Lumber similar to that of white oak. Bark formerly used for tanning leather. A beautiful and underused oak species for drier sites.
Interesting Facts: The wavy margined chestnut oak leaves don't really look much like the long, sharply toothed leaves of American chestnut, but the name is a reminder of a time when American chestnut grew alongside chestnut oaks.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

Red Oak

Latin name: Quercus rubra
Height: 60 to 80 feet
Width: 40 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Grows well on upland sites. most cold-tolerant oak species, hardy to zone 4.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Dense foliage, pyramidal form when young, developing long straight trunk in forest conditions, and shorter thick trunk in open situations. Rounded crown, usually more symmetrical than white oak. Leaves glossy, 5 to 8 inches long with lobes ending in sharp points. Fall color ranges from vivid red to russet brown. Big acorns, about 1 inch long, with very shallow caps like little berets. Ripen in two years, bitter taste. Bark smooth when young, becoming ridged with age.
Wildlife Value: Foliage browsed by deer. Acorns a major food source for wildlife species, especially deer, bear, turkeys, squirrels and many birds, especially jays and woodpeckers.
Uses: Very strong heavy, reddish wood, used for beams, framing, flooring and furniture. Tolerant of urban conditions and does well in larger areas like parks.
Interesting Facts: Unusually fast growing for an oak.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

White Oak

Latin name: Quercus alba
Height: 50 to 80 feet
Width: 40 to 60 feet
Growth Rate: Slow to medium
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Quite drought tolerant, will grow on dry rocky sites.
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Dense foliage, pyramidal form when young. Open grown trees tend to develop short massive trunks and wide irregular crowns, often very picturesque. Forest-gown trees have longer trunks and narrower crowns. Leaves 4 to 8 inches long with rounded lobes, often finger shaped. Fall color wine red to pinkish brown. Acorns, small and sweet, maturing in one year. Bark is light gray brown, flaky on younger trees, becoming platy or blocky on old trees.
Wildlife Value: Acorns valuable food for turkey, deer, squirrels, jays and many other species.
Uses: Lumber is extremely strong and hard. Was widely used for barrels because tyloses in wood make it water tight and resistant to rot. Used for beams, railroad ties, flooring and furniture. Prized for framing timbers in wooden boats.
Interesting Facts: Quartersawn white oak, with its distinctive grain and dimensional stability was the primary wood used by Stickley and other makers of Mission style furniture. The iconic leaf shape of white oak is often used for logos and symbols.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

Allegheny Chinquapin - also known as American Chinquapin or Dwarf Chestnut

Latin name: Castanea pumila
Height: 10 to 20 feet
Width: 10 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun. Soil well drained, moist to dry.
Physical Description: Deciduous large shrub or small tree. Usually a multi-stemmed shrub with dense rounded habit. Bark, brown to dark grey. Smooth on young stems, somewhat furrowed and platy on older stems. Leaves long pointed oval, 3 to 6 inches long and coarsely toothed. Glossy dark green on top, pale fuzzy on underside. New lateral branches with 10 or more alternate leaves often held in a single plane, almost like a giant compound leaf. Leaves and lateral branching similar to American chestnut. However, chestnut leaves are much longer, thinner textured, and have smooth undersides. Both male and female flowers in clusters of 4 to 6 inch long catkins. Female flowers develop into clusters of 1-inch spiny burs, each bur containing a single, glossy brown, edible nut. Burs are in prickly clusters and split open when the nuts are ripe. The acorn-size nuts are round rather than flattened on one side like American chestnut. Nut production can begin at 3 or 4 years, with heavy crops by 6 year old plants. Less susceptible to chestnut blight than American chestnut. Tough and durable species tolerant of drought and poor sandy or rocky soil.
Wildlife Value: Outstanding wildlife food for many species.
Uses: The little nuts are delicious, and have potential as a nut crop. Chinquapin is planted for wildlife habitat, land reclamation, and for its nuts. The small size, dense glossy foliage, clustered burs, and compact form make it an interesting and attractive species suitable for smaller sites.
Interesting Facts: One of the plants described by Captain John Smith from a 1606 voyage to Virginia. "They have a small fruit growing on little trees, husked like a Chesnut, but the fruit most like a very small Acorne. This they call Chechinquamins, which they esteem a great daintie".
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30 only.

Osage Orange or Hedge-apple, Bois d'arc

Latin name: Maclura pomifera
Height: 30 to 50 feet
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Prefers well drained soil, but tolerates wide range of site conditions. Tolerates road salt and air pollution Fully hardy in zone 5 and grows especially well in central and southern New York. Tolerant of occasional flooding.
Physical Description: Medium size tree. Broad rounded crown with short stout trunk. Apt to be somewhat irregular in shape. Odd and distinctive branching pattern. Bark is brown on younger branches becomes ridged and furrowed on trunk and older branches. Often shows the bright orange of inner bark on trunk. Typically has stout thorns, but some trees are almost thornless. Leaves are alternate along young branches, grow in whorls from short shoots on older branches. Glossy oval leaves with long pointed tips are 4 to5 inches long with smooth margins. Fall color bright yellow. Foliage has clean attractive appearance and is rarely bothered by insects. Male and female flowers on separate trees. Female trees produce grapefruit sized, inedible green fruit with pleasant citrus fragrance. Actually a member of mulberry family despite superficial resemblance to citrus.
Wildlife Value: It can be planted as a hedge to provide wildlife cover and food. The fruit is sometimes eaten by deer and the seeds are popular with squirrels and birds.
Uses: Fruit used to repel insects. Can be grown as dense thorny hedge. Coppices readily. Wood extremely hard and heavy, yellow to orange and highly rot-resistant. Becoming popular for turning, furniture and for boatbuilding. High BTU value firewood. Male trees make good street trees, but female trees are best planted where the big fruits won't be a nuisance.
Interesting Facts: Osage-orange is an intriguing Ice Age survivor that once grew as far north as Ontario, and whose unusual large fruits were likely eaten by mastodons and other extinct species. After the Ice Age, it ended up being restricted to a small range around the Texas-Oklahoma border, where the local Native American tribes used its tough hard wood for bows. The name "bois d'arc" means wood for bows. European settlers planted it for hedges and used the rot-resistant wood for fence posts and railroad ties.
Seedling size and cost: 3 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

American Sycamore, American Plane Tree, Buttonball Tree

Latin name: Platanus occidentalis
Height: 70 to 100 feet
Width: 50 to 80 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun. Soil, deep, moist to wet. Will grow in alkaline soils. Very tolerant of seasonal flooding.
Physical Description: Large deciduous tree, with showy mottled bark. Typically found growing along streams and in floodplains. One of the largest eastern deciduous trees. Long-lived and fast growing. Can develop massive trunk, up to 10 feet in diameter. Very old trees may become hollow at base. Big stout root system holds tree (and soil) securely on erosion-prone streambank. Crown broad and open. Stout branches spread almost horizontally on trees growing on open sites, tend to be more upright on trees on crowded sites. Reddish brown twigs have distinctive zigzag look. Decorated in winter with ball-like, 1-inch seed heads, dangling on long stalks. Bark is spectacular, flaking off in rounded flakes to reveal smooth inner bark in various shades of tan, pale yellow, grey-green, light greys, and white. Lower trunk eventually develops permanent cover of flaky grey-brown bark, but upper trunk and lower limbs keep the characteristic mottled pattern. Upper limbs often become pure white, a dazzling sight on a sunny day in late fall to early spring. Seen from a distance, branches can appear to be covered with snow. Large, dark green, 3 to 5 lobed leaves. Shaped somewhat like maple leaf, but larger and more coarsely toothed. Leaves often 6 to 9 inches wide.
Wildlife Value: Seeds eaten by many birds in winter. Hollows in trunks and branches provide dens and shelter for many species of mammals and birds. Abundant sap used by sapsuckers. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Tough, light colored wood hard to split. Now mostly used for pulp. Wood formerly used for food boxes and utensils because it does not affect food flavor or odor. Sometimes used for butcher blocks. One of the most magnificent riparian trees for large sites. Enormous size, and susceptibility to anthracnose blight, limits use as urban tree despite its general toughness. Best planted in natural areas where it has sufficient space for roots to spread. Anthracnose seems to be much less common in trees on natural sites, but can occur after a very cold wet spring. Too large for most yards and urban parks, but makes splendid tree for streamside planting where it can provide erosion protection in flood-prone areas.
Interesting Facts: One of the parents of hybrid tree, London plane, which is widely planted in urban areas. American sycamore can be distinguished from London plane by its whiter inner bark and only a single buttonball seed head on each stem. London plane has greener inner bark, and 2 or more buttonballs per stem. Very large hollow trunks have even been used as dwellings by humans, as well as by large animals. Smaller hollow trunks were used to make all manner of useful objects such as barrels, pails, and cisterns. Native Americans used the hollow trunks for canoes, storage containers, and drums.
Seedling size and cost: 1 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30 only

Wild Apple

Latin name: Malus pumila
Height: 20 to 40 feet
Width: 10 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Full sun, moist well drained soil. Wild apple
Physical Description: Deciduous tree. Form variable, sometimes with short trunk and wide spreading crown, or upright and pyramidal with narrower crown. Leaves oval, light green with fuzzy whitish undersides, growing from short spur shoots on older branches. Clusters of white flowers with pink buds produced on spurs, followed by familiar apple fruit. Fruit usually 1 to 2 ½ inches, often yellowish, but may be red, depending on seed source. Bark is smooth and dark gray on young trees, becoming rough and platy on old trees.
Wildlife Value: Fruit and seeds eaten by many species, bark and twigs are favored winter browse. Flowers attracts pollinating insects and birds. Orioles are especially partial to wild apple flowers.
Uses: Primarily planted for wildlife, but also have value as genetic resource for improvement of domestic apples.
Interesting Facts: Wild apples, more accurately feral apples, are descendants of old orchard trees that have grown from seed (orchard cultivars are grafted) and have become naturalized in old farm areas. Although the domestic orchard apple is an introduced species, wild apples, despite being widely spread by wildlife, are not considered invasive in New York.
Seedling size and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5"-14". 25/$30, 100/$66.

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Wildlife Habitat Shrubs/Small Trees

Order 25 for $20 and 100 for $45 except as noted. Minimum Height 5". New York source. See Nursery Stock Availability page for status of availability since some species sell out quickly.

American Plum

Latin name: Prunus americanus
Height: 5-30 feet
Width: 5 to 20 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Soil moist, well drained.
Physical Description: Small tree or spreading shrub. In the wild, grows as small understory tree in open forests, but also grows in open areas. Can spread by root suckers. Broad open crown and short trunk. Young bark smooth, dark gray, becoming rough and scaly with age. Branches may have spines. Blooms in spring before leaves open. Flowers white, about 1 inch across with five petals and are very fragrant. Leaves 2 to 4 inches long, oval with pointed tip and finely toothed margin. Upper surface is dark green, looks rather rough textured. Fruit about 1 inch in diameter, occurring singly or in clusters, yellow to red when ripe. Ripe fruit become soft and succulent, and have delicious flavor. Single stone (seed) is not as large as might be expected in a wild fruit.
Wildlife Value: Important pollinator plant, especially for native bees. Much used by wildlife for food, browse and cover.
Uses: Beautiful native fruit tree with outstanding flowers. Used for wildlife planting, windbreaks, and restoration planting. Good for erosion control because of spreading root system. Can be used as native hedge plant.
Interesting Facts: The taste of wild plum is much more intense than that of larger cultivated plums, and a reminder that our wild fruit species are well worth growing for people as well as for wildlife. There is a special value to seasonal wild fruits which are not available year around (except as preserves). They are fruits to anticipate and to savor.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 year seedling. Height. 5". New York source. 25/$30 only.

Arrowwood - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Viburnum dentatum
Height: 6 to 10 feet
Width: 4 to 8 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to fast
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade. Soil well drained to wet. Observed growing on open sites ranging from dry hillsides to cattail wetlands.
Physical Description: Deciduous multi-stemmed shrub. General form - straight slender trunks with much branched stems forming a rounded crown. New shoots are straight as an arrow. Bark grayish brown, smooth. Leaves are opposite, 1 to 3 inches long, shining green on top, lighter below. Leaf shape ranges from pointed oval to pointed elliptical, strongly veined, and has regular, rather coarse teeth. Arrowwood foliage is quite distinctive with its markedly opposite leaves, clear fresh green color and rather crisp texture. Fall color is remarkably varied, ranging from purples, reds and pinks to shades of orange peach and yellow. Flowers small, creamy white, in flat top clusters 2 to 4 inches in diameter, nicely held above the leaves. Berries are dark blue to black, rather small, about ¼ inch in diameter, in flat topped clusters, sometimes with pinkish stems. The fruit is held far longer than most shrubs, usually well into winter.
Wildlife Value: Outstanding shrub for wildlife, especially as winter food for birds. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Very versatile shrub for riparian areas, wildlife planting, and wetland restoration. Also useful for multi-species living snow fences and for wildlife fence rows.
Interesting Facts: The very straight new shoots were used to make arrows, hence the name.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height. 5". New York source.

Northern Bayberry

Latin name: Morella pensylvanica, formerly Myrica pensylvanica
Height: 5 to 10 feet
Width: 5-10 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist, well drained soil. tolerant of a wide range of soil types, but as one of the few shrubs which can fix nitrogen, grows well on even the poorest sandy soils. Extremely salt tolerant. Hardy in Saratoga.
Physical Description: A remarkably versatile shrub, bayberry is equally at home in Long Island sand dunes and in wooded inland fens. This sun-loving shrub is tolerant of a wide range of soil types, but as one of the few shrubs which can fix nitrogen, it can grow well on even the poorest sandy soils. In warmer zones it is often evergreen, holding its aromatic leathery green leaves all winter. Deciduous (sometimes evergreen) spreading shrub. Multi-stemmed with dense foliage, rounded form. Leaves glossy, fragrant, 2 to 4 inches long, narrow oval with teeth near the tip. Leaves are alternate along the stem, often clustered densely at branch tips. Female plants have 1/8 inch waxy gray berries on lower stems.
Wildlife Value: The berries are held well into winter and are eaten by many bird species
Uses: Bayberry makes a fine urban or roadside shrub because of its high salt tolerance and its resistance to insects and diseases. It can be pruned as a hedge or allowed to spread as a low maintenance ground cover shrub.
Interesting Facts: The leaves make great potpourri, and the waxy gray berries are the source of fragrant bayberry candles.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Beach Plum

Latin name: Prunus maritima
Height: 4 to 10 feet
Width: 4 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Although it is a coastal species, beach plum grows on a wide range of sites and is hardy in Saratoga. It prefers well drained soils, dislikes clay. Highly salt tolerant
Physical Description: Deciduous spread shrub. Usually multi-stemmed but may grow as single stemmed small tree. Leaves alternate, oval and finely toothed, 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches long. White flowers with 5 petals, fruit round plums ¾ inch to 1 inch long, yellow or red to black with whitish bloom. Bark on young stems shiny reddish brown with horizontal lenticels, becoming rough and dark brown on older stems.
Wildlife Value: A top wildlife food. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Coastal planting, wildlife areas, dune stabilization. Small size, interesting form and salt tolerance make beach plum an attractive choice for many urban and suburban situations, particularly for natural areas and wildlife plantings.
Interesting Facts: Beach plum thrives far from beaches. At the Saratoga State Tree Nursery, the beach plums in the seed production orchard have excellent crops of plump, delicious-looking, little plums. Alas for lovers of beach plum jelly, these plums are strictly reserved for seed to grow more seedlings.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 year seedling. Height. 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Blue Beech, American Hornbeam, Iron wood, Musclewood

Latin name: Carpinus caroliniana
Height: 15 to 25 feet
Width: 10 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Slow to medium
Site Requirements: Part sun to shade. Soil moist, well drained. Can tolerate seasonal flooding. Will grow on drier sites but not very drought tolerant. Natural habitats include stream banks, floodplains and forest understories.
Physical Description: Small deciduous tree. Crown broad to conical, trunk and branches often somewhat irregular and twisted. Leaves alternate, 2 to 4 inches long, elliptical with pointed tip and double-toothed margin. Leaves smooth, bright green upper surfaces and lighter undersides. Bark is tight and smooth like beech, but a usually a darker shade of gray. Trunk and large limbs have a subtly fluted surface giving them a sculpted look of flexed muscles. Male and female catkins bloom on the same plant. Seeds surrounded by leaf-like bracts in long pendant clusters. The dangling seed clusters are lighter green than the leaves and quite showy. Although leaves resemble those of some birch species, their fall color is very different from the plain yellow of birches. Hornbeams have an attractive mix of colors with plenty of orange and red hues. The leafy seed clusters also turn bright colors to match the leaves.
Wildlife Value: Seeds, buds and catkins eaten by many birds and squirrels. Twigs, buds and foliage browsed by rabbits, beaver and deer. Because hornbeam is often found near water, it is frequently used by beavers for construction as well as for food. Host plant for at least 60 species of moths and butterflies.
Uses: A small slow-growing tree useful for sites too restricted for large trees. Makes nice street tree where adequate moisture available. Good for understory planting on riparian sites. A beautiful native tree to add to smaller native plant landscape, even in a shaded yard.
Interesting Facts: Very hard, heavy light colored wood resistant to splitting, is sometimes called ironwood. Once used for bowls and dishes, as well as for tool handles. Too small to be a commercial timber species except for firewood. Hard dense wood is good for turning. The fluted surface of the trunk makes attractive slices, especially since the growth rings look rippled rather than perfectly circular.
Seedling size and cost: Height. 5". 25/$20, 100/$45.

Bristly Locust

Latin name: Robinia hispida
Height: 3 to 8 feet
Width: 3 to 8 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, medium to dry soils. Because it is a nitrogen-fixing species, it can grow on extremely poor soils. Has been grown on acid soils with pH as low as 3.5, and on alkaline soils with pH up to 8.
Physical Description: Deciduous running shrub. Stems upright, with branched flared crowns. Will spread naturally by root sprouts into extensive thickets, especially in eroding soil. Intriguing looking shrub because it is literally covered with stiff reddish brown bristles, especially on young stems. Older bark is brownish with conspicuous lenticels. Leaves alternate, 7 to 9 inches long, compound, with 9 to 13 leaflets. Leaf stems have a pair of small spines at the base. Leaflets oval, about 1 inch long, soft green above and lighter green below. Flowers are stunning, big hanging clusters of rose pink, pea-like blossoms each almost an inch long. They are followed by 2 to 3 inch long, hanging seed pods. Although the pods are fairly flat, they look much plumper because of their thick coat of stiff, upright, reddish bristles. The plants look quite fierce with their bristles, but aside from the paired thorns at bases of the leaves, they are not as thorny as they appear to be. The bristles are more like scrub brush bristles, stiff enough to stand straight, but flexible enough to be easily bent.
Wildlife Value: Flowers have value for honey, thickets provide some cover for various species. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Reclamation of mined land, slope stabilization and soil improvement. Especially useful for anchoring eroding soils and gravels because exposed roots quickly develop suckers.
Interesting Facts: This is the Arnot bristly locust developed at the USDA NRCS Big Flats Plant Materials Center in New York State.
Note: Despite its small size and beautiful flowers, this shrub should not be planted on confined sites or in yards. It is intended for reclamation of mined land and other barren sites where its fast spread by root sprouting is an advantage rather than a liability.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Buttonbush

Latin name: Cephalanthus occidentalis
Height: 5 to 10 feet
Width: 4 to 8 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist to wet soil. Will grow on well drained sites with adequate moisture. Often found in cattail marshes and pond shorelines.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Often multi-stemmed, but may have single trunk. May sometimes show distinctive right angle branching. Habit ranges from rounded, dense shrub to open irregular habit in the wild. Leaves opposite, 3 to 4 inches long, rather leathery, smooth margin.
Wonderful snowball-like spheres of tiny white fragrant flowers about 1 inch in diameter. Decorative round green seed heads on long stems turn brown when ripe. Bark smooth on young plants, developing flaking texture.
Wildlife Value: Nectar plant for butterflies, hummingbirds and other pollinators. Seeds eaten by many birds.
Uses: Riparian restoration, rain gardens, wildlife habitat and butterfly gardens
Interesting Facts: Attractive flaking bark, unusual branching, and the round seed heads make buttonbush striking even in winter. Truly unique in bloom.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height. 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Eastern Red Cedar

Latin name: Juniperus virginiana
Height: 10 to 40 feet
Width: 6 to 20 feet
Growth Rate: Slow
Site Requirements: Full sun, well drained soil. Often found on dry ridges and rock outcrops. Does well on limestone soils as well as more acid soils. Although highly drought resistant, it will make better growth in well drained, deep soils - as long as it has full sun.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree with dense foliage. Very fragrant. Narrow habit when young, becoming more spreading and conical with age.Has two types of foliage, juvenile and adult. Juvenile foliage (found on seedlings and young trees): bluefish-green needles ¼ inch long, with sharp ends. Adult foliage: smooth, dark olive green, 1/16 long, scale-like needles held close to twigs. Separate male and female trees. Males have tiny yellowish pollen cones. Females produce berry-like, blue cones about 1/8 to ¼ inch in diameter. Bark thin, red-brown and gray, shredding in strips.
Wildlife Value: Berries are important food for many birds. Dense foliage provides good cover for many species. Foliage browsed by deer.
Uses: Wildlife, reclamation planting on dry sites. Aromatic red heartwood is used to line cedar closets. Wood is very rot-resistant, but uses limited due to small size. Used for rough, but long-lasting, fence posts.
Interesting Facts: Traditional wood for cedar pencils.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20 only.

Elderberry

Latin name: Sambucus canadensis
Height: 8 to 12 feet
Width: 8 to 12 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade, moist well drained soil, can tolerate drier sites. Often found along old roadside fence rows.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Form is broad round topped shrub with arching branches. Can be sprawling and apt to lean toward sun if growing in partial shade. Will eventually spread into thickets if conditions allow, but often grows in solitary clumps. Younger stems smooth tan bark with prominent raised lenticels, older bark is brownish. Younger stems are hollow with soft pith. Leaves opposite, 7 to 12 inches long, compound with 5 to 11 narrow, finely toothed leaflets. Foliage is yellowish green to light green, rather coarse textured. Fall color is yellow. Flowers small and white in big flat-topped clusters up to 10 inches across. Flowers later in summer than many shrubs. Flowers followed by big flat-topped clusters of dark purple berries. Quite unmistakable in bloom and in fruit.
Wildlife Value: Outstanding. Fruit eaten by many songbirds, upland game birds and small mammals. Good browse species in late summer and fall. Excellent cover and nest sites for birds. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Riparian planting, reclamation, mixed species living snow fence, and wildlife fencer planting.
Interesting Facts: Hollow twigs used for flutes and whistles by Native Americans. Berries make good preserves, pies and elderberry wine.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20 only.

Gray Dogwood - Available in mixed species packets only

Latin name: Cornus racemosa
Height: 4 to 10 feet
Width: 4 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade, well drained to moist soils. Quite drought tolerant.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Upright habit, stems not sprawling. Spreads by root suckers, will form a smoothly rounded mound. Thin red-brown to gray twigs. Opposite leaves, oval to elliptical shape, 2 ½ inches long, medium green. Clusters of small white flowers followed by white berries on bright red-pink stems. Bark light gray, smooth in younger plants, becoming rougher with age. Leaves turn a distinctive purplish-burgundy color in fall, which contrasts nicely with the white berries held on conspicuous hot pink stems.
Wildlife Value: Berries are a bird magnet, flowers attract butterflies and other pollinating insects.
Uses: Soil stabilization, windbreaks, fence rows.
Interesting Facts: Gray dogwood, once considered a bit of a weed for its ability to spread in disturbed areas, is one of the few native shrubs that can persist along roadsides invaded by buckthorn and shrub honeysuckle. In the wild, gray dogwood grows on a remarkably wide range of sites, from wetland edges to extremely dry rocky areas. Tough as nails.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Highbush Cranberry

Latin name: Viburnum opulus
Height: 8 to 12 feet
Width: 8 to 12 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Upright growth habit. Leaves opposite, 3 lobed, 2 to 4 inches long. Fall color shades of red. White flowers in flat topped clusters, followed by bright red berries.
Wildlife Value: Berries a top favorite of many birds. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Hedges, windbreaks, riparian planting, wildlife habitat
Interesting Facts: Not a true cranberry. There are two subspecies of highbush cranberry, one European and one American, both equally attractive to birds.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Nannyberry - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Viburnum lentago
Height: 8 to 15 feet
Width: 4 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Will tolerate wide range of soil types including limestone soils.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Form often tall, rather narrow form with rounded top. Usually multi-stemmed. Leaves glossy, oval, 2 to 4 inches long with very finely serrated margin. Leaf stems may be slightly winged. Small white flowers in flat umbels, followed by clusters of oval, 3/8 inch berries which turn dark blue then black. Bark is dark grey, looks nearly black.
Wildlife Value: A favorite of many birds. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Wildlife, hedges and windbreaks, riparian habitat restoration.
Interesting Facts: One of the taller viburnums, can make attractive small tree when grown as single stem.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source.

Northern White Cedar, also known as Arborvitae

Latin name: Thuja occidentalis
Height: 20 to 60 feet
Width: 10 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist well drained soil. Does well on limestone, also grows in wet soil.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Form rounded, narrow to conical when young, with dense foliage. Older trees develop tapered crowns and straight long trunks in forest conditions. Frequently grown in hedges and may appear multi-stemmed because of very low branched trunk. Foliage shiny, dark green, flattened sprays of twigs with tiny smooth scale-like needles. Cones about ½ inch long, brown with only a few scales. Bark gray and finely furrowed.
Wildlife Value: Excellent cover for many species because of dense foliage. Widely used as winter deer browse.
Uses: Hedges, screens, windbreaks, lumber. Wood is very light, rot-resistant and fairly strong.
Interesting Facts: Wood prized for planking small boats because of light weight. The famous 19th century Rushton canoes, built in upstate New York, were planked with white cedar. Most famous Rushton canoe 'Sairy Gamp', was 10 ½ feet long and weighed less than 10 pounds.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". 25/$20, 100/$45.

Prairie Willow

Latin name: Salix humilis var. humilis
Height: 2 to 8 feet
Width: 4 to 8 feet
Growth Rate: Medium to slow.
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade. Soil well drained to moist. Upland species which grows in drier habitats than most willows. Does well on sandy soil.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Can form dense thickets, but not an aggressive spreader. Leaves alternate, 2 to 4 inches long and ½ to ¾ inch wide. Leaf shape is typically oblong with a rounded tip. Upper surface is grayish green to dark green, and not shiny. Lower surface is lighter green to whitish, softly fuzzy, with prominently raised veins. The edges of the leaves are often revolute (slightly rolled under). Unlike many somewhat similar willows, prairie willow does not have noticeable stipules (leafy projections at the bases of the leaves). Blooms very early in spring before leaves emerge. Male and female catkins on separate plants.
Wildlife Value: Special value for native bees because it provides early spring food resources when few other plants are in bloom. Like other willows, it is valuable to wildlife for food and cover. Leaves and bark valuable for browse, buds and catkins eaten by many birds.
Uses: Used for wildlife habitat, restoration planting and for soil stabilization. Can be used for bioengineering on sites too dry for most willows. Can be coppiced to produce willow rods for basketry.
Interesting Facts: One of New York's few upland willows which thrives in seemingly willow-unfriendly dry areas, such as the Albany Pine Bush. Other upland willows are the comparatively rare dwarf prairie willow, Salix humilis var. tristis, also at home in the Pine Bush, and the endangered sand dune willow, Salix cordata, which grows in Great Lakes shoreline sand dunes.
Size, source and cost:
1 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45

Pussy Willow

Latin name: Salix discolor
Height: 6 to 15 feet
Width: 4 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Will grow in wetlands.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Can be grown as multi-stemmed shrub or as small single-trunked tree. Tree form branches shorter angular, foliage usually smaller. Very variable. Leaves alternate, elliptical, 2 to 4 inches long, light green to bluish green above, white below. Flower buds are gray and silky, later open into male or female catkins. Multi-stemmed shrub can be maintained by coppicing to get long shoots and lots of flower buds.
Wildlife Value: important browse species for many animals and birds. Willow buds, leaves twigs and bark provide food year around. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: streambank stabilization, rain gardens, flower production for floral arrangements, bioengineering structures, riparian protection.
Interesting facts: Willow bark contains salicylic acid original source of aspirin. Used by native Americans as pain killer.
Size, source and cost: 1 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Red Osier Dogwood "Ruby"

Latin name: Cornus sericea
Height: 6 to 9 feet
Width: 6 to 9 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist, well drained soil to seasonally wet soils. Will grow in wetlands.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Multi-stemmed, growing in wide mound, spreads by rooting stems. Bright red twigs and younger branches. Leaves opposite, oval, 1 ½ to 3 inches long. Clusters of small white flowers, followed by white berries. Bark smooth and red, becoming gray and slightly furrowed on older stems.
Wildlife Value: Flowers draw butterflies and other pollinators, berries eaten by many birds, stems and leaves browsed by deer and small mammals
Uses: Soil stabilization, wildlife planting, hedges, windbreaks, basketry.
Interesting Facts: "Ruby" is a Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) introduction propagated from a plant found growing in Painted Post NY. This is propagated by cuttings which essentially are clones of the original plant. They will be consistent in physical characteristics. This selection has exceptional stem-rooting (layering) ability for use in stream bank stabilization and soil bioengineering. Can be repeatedly coppiced, either for production of rooting whips or to maintain it as a dense hedge.
Size, source and cost: 2 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Red Stem Dogwood

Latin name: Cornus sericea, also known as red osier dogwood
Height: 6 to 9 feet
Width: 6 to 9 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist, well drained soil to seasonally wet soils. Will grow in wetlands.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Multi-stemmed, growing in wide mound , spreads by rooting stems. Bright red twigs and younger branches. Leaves opposite, oval, 1 ½ to 3 inches long. Clusters of small white flowers, followed by white berries. Bark smooth and red, becoming gray and slightly furrowed on older stems.
Wildlife Value: Flowers draw butterflies and other pollinators, berries eaten by many birds, stems and leaves browsed by deer and small mammals.|
Uses: Soil stabilization, wildlife planting, hedges, windbreaks, basketry.
Interesting Facts: To avoid confusion with the NRCS Red Osier Dogwood "Ruby", a named selection propagated by cuttings, the name red-stem dogwood is used here to describe Cornus sericea plants grown from seed from a variety of sources. Plants grown from seed have natural variation.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Rugosa Rose - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Rosa rugosa
Height: 3 to 7 feet
Width: 3 to 7 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, well drained soil. Does well on sandy soils.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. New stems usually green, very prickly. Leaves light green, shiny, have distinctive quilted texture. Flowers single, 2 inch, pink, occasionally white, with strong cinnamon-like fragrance. Will re-bloom. Large red hips, sometimes ½ diameter. Will spread by sending up new shoots from roots.
Wildlife Value: Hips excellent food for many birds, leaves and stems are browsed by deer and rabbits. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Much used along roads and in coastal areas because of salt tolerance and drought resistance. Very large hips are good source of vitamin C.
Interesting Facts: Originally from Japan, Rugosa rose has been widely planted because of its salt tolerance, disease resistance, and because it reblooms, unlike most species roses which only bloom once. In some areas it has become invasive, so check before you plant.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 year seedling. Height 5". New York source.

Dwarf Sand Cherry "Catskill"

Latin name: Prunus pumila var. depressa
Height: 1 to 2 feet
Width: 3 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist, well drained soil. Eastern sand cherry grows wild on unstable shifting substrates such as gravel bars or inland coastal sand dunes. It grows well in a wide range of soils, including limestone soils.
Physical Description: Deciduous trailing shrub. Naturally prostrate shrub with trailing branches that spread across the ground and root into the soil. Short upright shoots 10 -16 inches tall, shiny red brown bark. Leaves gray-green, long and fairly narrow with rounded tips, 1-3 inches long ¼ to ¾ inches wide. Underside is whitish. Leaves held rather upright. White, 5 petaled flowers on lower half of shoots, followed by ½ inch dark red fruit. Bark on trailing branches typical cherry dark brown with lighter lenticels.
Wildlife Value: Fruit is eaten by many animals and birds. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: The Sand Cherry grown at the Nursery comes from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) where it was originally propagated from seed of wild plants growing along the Delaware River near the NY/PA border. Used for riparian planting and soil stabilization, it also makes an excellent dense ground cover, and its extensive roots can help stabilize steep embankments. It also makes a beautiful shrub for urban planting, especially where its branches can trail from raised beds or across gravel mulch. The name "sand cherry" is deceiving because it will grow successfully on other soils that have good drainage. It is drought tolerant once established, yet will tolerate periodic flooding of short duration.
Interesting facts: Sand cherry is so unusual that it is worth using in situations where it can be seen up close, for example in raised plantings or for stormwater planting near buildings. It could be planted in an elegant low profile rain garden surfaced with river gravel, and allowed to spread as it does in the wild on river bars. Especially nice growing amidst large landscape rocks, great potential for urban areas.
Seedling size, source and cost: 1 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20 only.

Sandbar Willow

Latin Name: Salix interior
Height: 3 - 10 feet
Width: 3 - 10 feet
Growth Rate: fast
Site Requirements: full sun, wet to moist soil, tolerates intermittent standing water
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Very narrow, gray green leaves with widely spaced teeth. Fine textured, feathery foliage on slender tan stems. Vigorous spreading growth. Typically forms dense, multi-stemmed mounds of foliage. Bright yellow in fall.
Wildlife Value: Good cover for birds and animals, browse for deer, buds eaten by grouse. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Stream bank stabilization, bioengineering, green infrastructure, living fences
Interesting facts: Sandbar willow is excellent for stabilizing streambanks and for use in living fences, snow fences and bioengineered structures. Its narrow leaves give it a delicate feathery look, and it could be used in landscapes for almost a bamboo-like effect. It does spread, an advantage for shoreline stabilization, but something that should be planned for in more urban settings.
Size, source and cost: 1 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Silky Dogwood

Latin name: Cornus amomum ssp. amomum, also known as swamp dogwood
Height: 6 to 10 feet
Width: 6 to 10 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, well drained to wet soils. Needs some moisture, is not highly drought tolerant.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Multi-stemmed shrub with dense foliage and rounded form. New stems reddish purple with fine silky hair. Flexible stems will root where they are in contact with the ground. Leaves opposite, oval with sharp tip, 2 to 4 inches long. Clusters of small white flowers in spring, followed by blue berries which ripen to black. Young bark smooth, greenish or brown, becoming brown, slightly furrowed .
Wildlife Value: Flowers attract butterflies and other pollinating insects. Fruit eaten by many birds. Leaves and twigs browsed by deer, rabbits.
Uses: Riparian restoration, stream bank stabilization, windbreaks.
Interesting Facts: One of the more shade tolerant shrubs for moist soil. Much used for restoration and stabilization because of ability to readily root from stems.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2 year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Speckled Alder

Latin Name: Alnus incana ssp. rugosa
Height: 5 to 15 feet
Width: 5 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to light shade. Soil moist to wet. Very flood tolerant, can grow in shallow standing water.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Usually grows in multi-stemmed clumps, but can form extensive stands in open areas. Bark is reddish-brown with white lenticels which give the stems their speckled look. Leaves alternate, oval, 2 to 4 inches long, dark green above, and lighter green below. Deeply incised veins give leaves characteristic rough texture. Coarse double-toothed leaf margins. Male and female flowers on same plant. Longer male catkins open in early spring to release wind-dispersed pollen. Female catkins short and green, maturing to brown in fall. Resemble tiny ½ inch pine cones when they open. Seed held in cones over winter and shed in spring. Very hardy northeastern species with range north to Hudson Bay. Nitrogen fixing species, often grows as pioneer shrub species in wet soils.
Wildlife Value: Seed, buds and catkins provide winter food for many bird species. Twigs, buds, and leaves browsed by many species. Much used by beavers for food and for dam building. Alder stands especially valuable for woodcock foraging habitat. Leaves fed on by many caterpillar species, including those of the luna moth.
Uses: Valuable for reclamation planting on sterile soils because of nitrogen fixing ability. Excellent for riparian and wetland restoration. Valuable for stream bank erosion control. Important riparian species for young forest areas where it provides food and cover to bird species such as woodcock and grouse.
Dense dark green foliage and white speckled stems make speckled alder interesting addition to native landscape planting. Grow with other riparian shrubs such as pussy willow, button bush, wetland rose, red osier dogwood and arrowwood.
Interesting facts: Re-sprouts quickly after fire or cutting especially in open wet areas. Dry seed cones great for miniature crafts.
Size, source and cost: 2 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Streamco Willow

Latin name: Salix purpurea "Streamco," also known as purpleosier willow
Height: 10 to 15 feet
Width: 10 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Upright clumping habit, forms long stems, especially when coppiced. Young stems purplish to reddish brown. Leaves alternate, but often appear to be opposite. Narrow leaves 2 to 4 inches long, bluish green with silvery white undersides.
Wildlife Value: important browse species for many animals and birds. Willow buds, leaves twigs and bark provide food year around. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Streambank stabilization, rain gardens, bioengineering structures, riparian protection. Also used for basket-making, rustic furniture, living structures.
Interesting facts: A variety of European basket willow that will produce long flexible shoots when coppiced. During late 19th early 20th century, willow basket making was a major industry in central NY.
Size, source and cost: 1 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Toringo Crabapple

Latin name: Malus seiboldii
Height: 10 to 15 feet
Width: 10 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil.
Physical Description: Deciduous small tree. Rounded habit with dense foliage. Fragrant white flowers, followed by ½ inch yellow to red fruit.
Wildlife Value: This crabapple species is especially valuable for wildlife, since it holds its fruit well into February when few other foods are available. It is a better choice than wild apple in many situations, since the shoots and bark are not severely browsed by deer. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Wildlife, hedges.
Interesting Facts: Although this species is native to Asia, it is often recommended in preference to native crabapples because of its superior disease resistance. Native crabapples are extremely susceptible to several major diseases, notably cedar-apple rust.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2-year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Virginia Rose - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Rosa virginiana
Height: 4 to 6 feet
Width: 2 to 6 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun, moist well drained soil. Does well in sandy soils, tolerant of salt spray.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. New canes dark red, paired slightly curved thorns. Leaves dark green and shiny with distinctive broad "wings" or stipules at the base of the stem. Flowers large, pink, single, about 1 ½ to 2 inches across. Blooms in late spring- early summer. Smooth red hips.
Wildlife Value: Hips excellent food for many birds, leaves and stems are browsed by deer and rabbits. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Soil and dune stabilization, roadside and beach planting, wildlife cover and food, hedges.
Interesting Facts: Can be used as native replacement for rugosa rose because of similar site preferences.
Size, source and cost: 1-year seedling. Height 5". New York source.

Wetland Rose

Latin name: Rosa palustris
Height: 4 to 7 feet
Width: 2 to 4 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun, wet to well drained soils. Often found growing with other wetland shrubs such as buttonbush and red osier dogwood in cattail marshes or along stream banks. Will also grow well on non-wetland sites, but does not like drought.
Physical Description: Deciduous spreading shrub. Upright, often narrow shrub with rounded top. New stems red, with slightly hooked thorns in pairs. Older stems often show lengthwise striping of light and dark brown bark. Leaves can be distinguished from those of other roses by the very narrow stipules at the base of each leaf stem. Leaflets often distinctly toothed, soft to glossy looking. Fall color: wines, reds, oranges and yellows. Blooms in late spring- early summer.Fragrant, pink 5 petaled flowers followed by 3/8 inch red hips with soft prickles.
Wildlife Value: Hips excellent food for many birds, leaves and stems are browsed by deer and rabbits. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: Riparian planting, wetlands, hedges.
Interesting Facts: Although species can grow fairly large and will spread into extensive colonies in wetlands, it does not form impassable tangles like the invasive multiflora rose.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2-year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45.

Wild Grape - Not available in 2017

Latin name: Vitis riparia, also known as river grape, riverbank grape
Height: 40 to 70 feet
Width: Variable
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Moist well drained soil. Although wild grape is a riparian species, it grows on a remarkably wide range of sites, thriving even in blighted industrial areas. Fairly drought tolerant, probably the most cold-hardy woody vine.
Physical Description: Deciduous woody vine. Long stems with attractive reddish-brown shredding bark. Young shoots light green, climbing with large forked tendrils, which coil strongly around supports. Leaves 2 to 6 inches long, light green, thin, shining, usually three lobed. Leaf form variable; some leaves may be very deeply lobed and toothed. Fruit tight clumps of dark blue to black grapes, about ¼ inch in diameter.
Wildlife Value: Berries are winter food for many bird and animal species, the bark is used by birds for nest material, and the vines are preferred nest sites for species such as cardinals. It is one of the most valuable species for wildlife, not only because of the fruit, but also because the swinging vine stems provide nest sites safe from the majority of predators.
Uses: Tough, hardy and fast-growing, it can be used to cover fences and shade structures. It climbs with strong coiling tendrils and can be grown on wall trellises as green walls to help cool buildings. It can grow tall enough to shade sides of multi-story buildings and is recommended as a native substitute for invasive wisteria vines. Although wild grape has a reputation for being aggressive, regular pruning makes it a beautiful asset for shading a house or covering a fence. Plus, grapevine prunings make excellent wreaths and decorations.
Interesting Facts: The fruit is very tart when it first ripens and makes excellent preserves. After a hard frost the berries become very sweet. A magnificent and under-rated vine that has tremendous potential for green infrastructure, particularly for cooling and air quality improvement. Attracts pollinating insects.
Note: Do not allow any vines to climb up trees. Encourage them to climb trellises, fences, buildings and other supports where they can provide shade and other benefits while getting the light that they want.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2-year seedling. Height 5". New York source.

Winged Sumac, Shining Sumac, Dwarf Sumac

Latin Name: Rhus copallinum
Height: 4 to 20 feet
Width: 5 to 15 feet
Growth Rate: Fast
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Soil moist to dry. Tolerates drought, salt spray. Found in a variety of challenging habitats, including coastal grasslands, maritime forests, dry rocky summits, and serpentine barrens.
Physical Description: Small deciduous tree, often spreading into multi-stemmed shrub. May be dwarfed by salt spray or shallow dry rocky soils, but will grow to full size on deeper soil. Habit resembles that of the familiar staghorn sumac, but smaller and less symmetrical. Stems often crooked, becoming quite picturesque with age. Leaves 12 to 18 inches long, alternate, and compound, with 7 to 15 narrow leaflets. The main leaf stem has distinctive wing. Leaflet margins are entire. Upper leaf surface dark green and very shiny. Fall color is spectacular, with the same brilliant color range of staghorn sumac, enhanced by the varnished look of the leaves. Male and female flowers on separate plants, both yellowish, conical clusters at the ends of the branches. Female flowers develop into clusters of small hard red fruit. The fruit clusters are less upright than those of staghorn sumac. Fruit held well into winter.
Wildlife Value: Seeds reliable fall and winter food for many birds. Browsed by deer and rabbits. Host for over 50 moth and butterfly species. Of special value to native bees who use hollow twigs for nest material.
Uses: Highly ornamental small tree for dry demanding sites. Will spread by root suckering, especially if crowded by shade. Ideally it should have some space to spread, but can be kept in bounds in smaller yard by cutting/mowing unwanted root suckers. Important species for restoration of coastal habitats. Good species for restoration planting on poor dry soil.
Interesting facts: Sumac fruits can be used to make lemonade-flavored drink. Dried fruit can be ground to make lemony flavored spice. Twigs have core of soft pith, which can be removed to make hollow tubes for whistles, pipe stems and beads.
Size, source and cost: 2 year rooted cuttings. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20, 100/$45

Witch Hazel

Latin name: Hamamelis virginiana
Height: 15 to 20 feet
Width: 15 to 20 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to shade, moist well drained soil. In the wild, often grows as an understory species and tolerates considerable shade.
Physical Description: Deciduous shrub. Multi-stemmed habit, spreading and open in shade, upright and pyramidal in full sun. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long, oval to almost round. Bright yellow leaves in early fall are followed by tiny highly fragrant yellow flowers.
Wildlife Value: The seeds and buds are a favorite winter food for grouse. Attracts pollinating insects.
Uses: It is the source of medicinal witch hazel. Witch Hazel can grow nicely in urban areas with adequate soil moisture. Because it is highly shade tolerant, Witch Hazel is a wonderful species to plant in the shade of a woodlot, where it can develop an interesting open habit.
Interesting facts: It is one of the only native plants which blooms in late fall and early winter. When ripe, the seed capsules explode open and may shoot seeds 30 feet or more.
Seedling size, source and cost: 2-year seedling. Height 5". New York source. 25/$20 only.

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Mixed Species Packets

The Nursery reserves the right to make substitutions in any wildlife packet using a species suitable for the area to be planted.

Containerized Stock

2-year greenhouse plugs. Minimum height 6". New York source. 50 for $35. All in very limited supply. Phone orders only.

Norway Spruce

Latin name: Picea abies
Height: 60 to 100 feet.
Width: 30 to 50 feet
Growth Rate: Fast to medium.
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade. Moist, well drained soil. Tolerates very wide range of soil types.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer. Conical shape, older trees with long upswept branches. Dark green needles, ¾ inch to 1 inch long, four sided with sharp tip. Leaf scar is a raised woody peg. Cone red-brown, very large, 6 inches to 8 inches long with thin stiff scales. Bark gray-brown, smooth when young, becoming rough and platy with age.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Lumber, windbreak, Christmas trees, pulp. Soft, light wood is valued for soundboards of musical instruments.
Interesting Facts: Big outdoor Christmas trees, such as those at Rockefeller Center, are often Norway spruce. Grows very large, and is most widely planted spruce for windbreaks and plantations.
Seedling cost: 50/$35

Tamarack

Latin name: Larix laricina also known as Eastern larch or hackmatack
Height: 40 to 80 feet
Width: 15 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Full sun, moist well drained soil. Hardy to zone 2. Like many northern species, prefers cooler sites. Grows well in swamps and other cool moist sites
Physical Description: Deciduous conifer tree. Shape narrow and conical when young, becoming more open and pyramidal with age. Needles soft, blue-green, ¾ inch to 1 ¼ inch long, arranged in whorls of 12 to 30 on short woody spurs along stem. Bright yellow fall color. Cones about ½ inch long, brown, egg-shaped. Twigs thin, not hairy, becoming yellowish brown to reddish brown. Bark smooth reddish brown when young, becoming rough and platy with age.
Wildlife Value: Buds, seeds and needles eaten by grouse. Seed eaten by squirrels, many birds.
Uses: Lumber, pulp. Wood heavy, strong and rot-resistant. Used for poles, construction lumber.
Interesting Facts: Hackmatack knees, naturally curved sections of wood cut from the angle of the trunk base and side root, are still used for traditional wooden boat frames, and are also used in timber frame construction, because of their great strength. Since this species often grows in swamps, it is apt to have a shallow root system with large roots growing at nearly right angles to the trunk.
Seedling cost: 50/$35

Red Spruce

Latin name: Picea rubens
Height: 60 to 80 feet
Width: 20 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Medium
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist well-drained soil. Shade tolerant when young, prefers cooler sites such as north facing slopes. Hardy to zone 2.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer tree. Full pyramidal shape when young, growing to tall narrow conical form. Foliage is shiny bright green to yellow-green. Sharp-tipped, four-sided needles ½ inch to ¾ inch long, pointing toward tip of stem. Cones shiny reddish brown with stiff smooth scales, 1 ½ inches to 2 inches long. Bark reddish brown to grayish brown, becoming rough and flaky.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites. Seeds eaten by many birds and small mammals.
Uses: Lumber, Christmas trees, pulp. Soft white lightweight wood, particularly fine for musical instruments and boat masts. A top timber tree in the northeast.
Interesting Facts: Called red spruce because of the red-brown color of the inner bark and also the young twigs.
Seedling cost: 50/$35

Meyer Spruce

Latin name: Picea meyeri
Height: 40 feet
Width: 30 feet
Growth Rate: slow to medium.
Site Requirements: Full sun, can tolerate partial shade. It is considered to be drought-tolerant, and thus makes an ideal choice for xeriscaping or the moisture-conserving landscape. It is not particular as to soil type or pH, and is able to handle environmental salt. It is highly tolerant of urban pollution and will even thrive in inner city environments.
Physical Description: Evergreen conifer. Conical shape. Dark blue-green short needles. Virtually identical to Colorado blue spruce but is more disease and pest resistant. Excellent needle retention and dense growth.
Wildlife Value: Cover and nest sites.
Uses: Windbreaks, privacy screens, Christmas trees, ornamental landscape tree.
Seedling cost: 50/$35

Balsam Fir

Latin name: Abies balsamea
Height: 40 to 70 feet
Width: 20 to 30 feet
Growth Rate: Slow
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade, moist well drained soil. Prefers cool conditions.
Physical Description: Evergreen tree. Conical shape with narrow crown. Needles ¾ inch long, dark green, with rounded ends, very fragrant. Leaf scar round and flat. Cones upright, 2 to 3 inches long, disintegrate on tree leaving persistent central spike. Bark gray-brown, smooth with
blisters filled with fragrant resin.
Wildlife Value: wildlife cover, foliage and buds eaten by deer, seeds eaten by birds and squirrels.
Uses: Christmas trees, wreaths, pulpwood and lumber.
Interesting Facts: Traditional Christmas tree species long prized for its wonderful fragrance. Resin from bark, known as Canada Balsam, formerly used as optical adhesive for glass lenses and microscope slides.
Seedling cost: Minimum height 6". 50/$35

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